Tag Archives: essay

Discursive: Teenagers spend too much time on their mobile phones and computers, to what extent do you agree with this view? By Subhan Bin Yousaf 11-E


As decades pass, the impact of technology continues to increase and affect the minds of the youth. For example, teenagers in early twentieth century were often seen helping their fathers in the farm or helping their mothers maintain the welfare of their house. Moving on to a century later, times have changed, teenagers who are expected to prove themselves as finally being mature and responsible, actually deliver the opposite of what the parents intended. The question is: what actually is driving them to behave in such way? Why have parents lost hope with their own children? Why are the 20th century generations’ civilians concerned about the future of the twenty-first century generations’ civilians? Lets break down this issue and find out reasons why.


The problem is that technology of the twenty-first century has enslaved the modern youth in its grasp. People in favour of handing mobiles in the hands of teenagers believe that by owning a mobile or a laptop, A student can use these devices to assist them in their studies. Professor Nawaf Sheikh of Saudi Arabia’s International University, has stated that owning a mobile actually can help a student carry out his study activity. He says that teachers themselves encourage students to own a mobile over which a teacher can provide notes to her/his students with a touch of the screen. Those opposed to handing teenagers mobile phones believe that owning a mobile phone can lead a student’s outstanding performance in studies to downfall. Professor Jojo Jehangir of the ministry of youth affairs, believes that there is mounting evidence that mobiles can destruct good grades. Over his 20 years in this profession, he has researched that over sixty-seven percent of students with outstanding results, fall down the mountain of success, with the mobile phone being responsible for their downfall. He says that the percentage continues to get piqued year after year.

Teenagers have grown lethargic ever since they were handed the mobile phones. Proponents of the use of mobiles for teenagers say that mobiles actually help a teenager with his activity and fitness. Professor Samwell Tarly of Oldtown’s Citadel institute has stated that teenagers download applications in their mobile, which assist them in finding an activity to carry out or the fitness enthusiastic teenagers download applications which track the feats the teenager ran throughout a day’s period. At the same time, Opponents of handing mobile phones in the hands of teenagers maintain that teenagers have lost their will to move a muscle, they remain restricted to their beds and if they are called upon, you summon them after your third call or they summon you when you have to go to them yourself. Doctor John Watson of London’s Institute of fitness believe that enslaving oneself to grasp of technology means to experience a lack of interest for exercise, activity, work or sport. You become used to laying on your bed which is why teenagers behave this way.


Teenagers see a mobile phone as a source to socialize with people. Those who support handing mobiles to teenagers suggest that when teenagers interact on social media through their mobile devices, not only do they socialize, but they remain calm and in joy as they talk to their friends. Monica Geller, a senior journalist has wrote in his book that using a mobile to interact on social media helps reduce the stress in a teenager’s life, helps build in confidence in a teenager as he interacts with all kinds of people. Furthermore, Critics of handing mobile phones in the hands of teenagers believe that using social media can also impact a teenager negatively. A teenager can find himself reading hate speech, motivating him to hate a particular group, he may find himself exploring the dark side of the web. Doctor Skyler White of Albuquerque’s University of Human Relations has found out that using social media has led to a noticeable change in a teenager’s behavior, He behaves aggressively, finds out about ways to inflict suffering to the people he/she hates.

To sum up, I am in favour of handing mobiles phones to teenagers because using mobiles can help a teenager save his notes and study additionally from the Internet. Mobile devices also have applications which help to find activities for a teenager or help him with his fitness. Using social media on mobile also helps a teenager remain happy, away from the stress of the world, Increases confidence of a teenager and helps him gain knowledge of modern studies. If you don’t hand mobiles to teenagers, they will never learn to mature or ever learn to cope with the business of the world or its different people. Its upto you to decide if mobiles are beneficial for character development or a source for being distracted from the world.

Descriptive Writing: Describe a moment of utmost happiness. By Amal Adil


As soon as I open it, I feel myself focus on the one thing in front of me. Placed comfortably in front of me, on my soft bed, it looks heavenly. My mouth starts to water no matter how full I am. And the smell is just amazing. It’s almost as if I can taste it. I can smell each and everything on it. Little swirls of steam rising from it, dissolving into the air of my bedroom. The cheese stretching into thin, stringy lines and not breaking until they were at least a foot long. The spice of the chicken blends in perfectly with the sweetness of the cheese. The chicken; perfectly cooked, a beautiful whitish color from the inside and a reddish brown color from the outside, with small specks of spices that can be seen easily.

And the vegetables! Now, I’m not a big fan of vegetables but with this, I can a whole lot of vegetables. The vegetables add a great deal of color to it. The lavender color of the onions, slightly burnt brown at the edges gives it that sweet, smoky flavor. The green bell peppers give it the slight bitterness that it just needs. This is topped with mushrooms and olives giving it a silky smooth texture.

And when you get all of this in one bite, it not only tastes mouth watering but also gives me this out-of-this-world feeling. The softness of the cheese and chicken mixes perfectly with the crunchiness of the vegetables. And a sizzling, bubbling glass of coke just makes the combination perfect. After you take a bite, the coke just gives it the perfect after taste. And yes, I’m talking about pizza which brings me the utmost happiness.


Discursive Writing: Should teens be able to buy violent video games? Discuss. By Amal Adil


Isn’t violence a part of everyone’s lives? Haven’t we all experienced or seen violence at some point in our lives? The world has changed, the environment has changed, and people have changed. It’s the era of technology and here, technology means video games. Who were video games made for? And who are they for now? Teenagers, right? All these questions will be discussed in the following passage.

Supporters of the topic believe that teens should be able to buy violent video games as they give teens exposure to the outside world. Veronica Merrell, a psychiatrist states that, “if teenagers are playing violent video games, let them. It will help them handle violent situations later on in life”. Similarly, a teenage boy, David Dobrick, 15, said, “I play violent video games all the time. Nobody ever told me I was too loud or too violent. I actually feel that these video games actually help me handle different circumstances”.

However, people against the topic argue that violent video games are what make most teenagers so moody. A recent article in the Times newspaper stated, “by playing violent video games, teenagers tend to become very hyperactive and react to small things very violently”. Likewise, a mother of 2 teenagers, 14 and 16 says that, “both my children have become so addicted to these “fighting” video games that they snap at me every time I try to talk to them when they are playing these games. I can’t even take these games away because they become so moody and angry afterwards. Teenagers are said to be ‘unbearable’ if their precious video games are taken away.

At the same time, advocates of the topic maintain that violent video games have helped many people in different circumstances. Alex Chamberlain, aged 16 recalls that the fighting moves that he uses in his video games came in handy when he was about to be kidnapped. God knows what would have happened if he hadn’t played that game. Also, Bruce Lee states, “I admit, I learnt half of my karate moves from this video game I used to play when I was a teenager. Yes, it was violent but look where it got me.”

In retrospect, opponents of the topic maintain that violent video games affect the lives of many people. James Milner, a high school teacher said that it is mostly those who play violent video games all day long that get into rough fights with everyone on small matters. A research also states, “62% of teenagers that play video games get into fights regularly and their brains tell them it is normal as they use violence in video games all day.”

Proponents of the topic feel that teenagers who play video games have become sharper and much more intelligent. Alex Morgan, another famous psychiatrist claims, “teenagers who play violent video games use different strategies while playing and have to make decisions very quickly. This strategy can also be used by them in real life”. Similarly, another study claims that teenagers who play violent video games in which team strategies are used, they can work better in teams and can communicate with people better.

On the contrary, challengers of the topic claim that if teenagers have younger siblings, playing violent video games affects young children as well. Katie Bell, a mother of two, 14 and 8, complains, “my teenage son is always playing violent video games and my 8 year old son plays them with him. I feel like he has become very moody and has a lot of mood swings. He always talks back to me and shouts at me”. This shows that teenagers playing violent video games little children and when they grow up, they also indulge in violent activities, also affecting the society.

So, in conclusion, I think that teenagers shouldn’t play violent video games as their actions become similar to those in the games and they indulge in aggressive activities which affects their families in society. They can also become very addictive making teenagers caged in their rooms all day. Teenagers shouldn’t play violent video games as they mess with their brains and hearts.



Discursive: Should teens be able to buy violent videos games By Noor Ul Ain Saif 10 – B


Ans. Should teens be accessible to violent videos games? Or should violent video games be banned from them? Mainly adults feel that violent videos games produce violent teens and high levels of violence in the surrounding, but mainly teens argue that those are solely for fun. Both points are valid and will be discussed in this essay.

Opponents of the topic maintain that violent videos games develop a violent mindset of the youngsters playing it and normalize guns, bombs and murders. It is believed that the increasing violence in today’s world is a result of the violence presented in the videos which develops an aggressive behavior in the young adults. A recent study at Harvard by the psychology specialists proves that eighty seven percent of school shooters are teens between the ages the 15 and 18. The psychologists infer that the teenagers are influenced by violence in video games that create a violent, and aggressive and intolerant mindset.

However, proponents of the topic feel that video games do not have a bad impact on the teens and are solely for fun and skill. They argue that instead of developing a violent mindset, videos games teach teenagers self defense techniques and also shows them the real, rebel world. Arnold Johnson, a young teenage boxer says that he developed the passion of boxing from a violent video game and learnt many boxing techniques from it. This supports the topic saying that violent videos games have an important advantage that happens to be very useful these days. What do you think? Do u believe violence in video games can be served as helpful?

Nevertheless, people against the topic argue that violent video games are highly addictive and are the reason teens are always glued to their devices: shooting fellow playing and causing chaos. In a recent experiment by the Youtube Celebrity Mr.Beast, he gave two teens videos games, to one a peaceful game like minecraft and to the other a violent game like PUBG. His experiment showed that after one hour the teen got bored of the peaceful game and turned it off, however the other teen kept playing the violent game for 6 hours and only turned it off because he was tired. This experiment determined that the games are highly addictive.

In retrospect, advocated of the topic maintain that it is not specifically violent games that are addictive but every kind of game is addictive. They believe that violent games aren’t only at fault and are rather stress relieving as the teens enjoy them. A quote by the owner of playstation goes as, “Nowadays, video games are the escape from this cruel reality.”

Consequently, critics of the topic believe that violent video games teach teens to go against a particular group of people, for example people for color, as in violent games, mostly they are to go against a particular sect. A research shows that 67% of video games are influencing racism, homophobia and religion based preference.

At the same time, campaigners of the topic believe that the violent games are only for the entertainment purposes and only some influence teens to go against a particular group and it is usually bad people like terrorists. So it is inferred that their games only cause people to act towards the ‘bad’ people.

In conclusion, it is learnt that violent video games have many bad effects on teens and the environment. In the opinion, violent video games should be banned for teens as they take influence of the violence and absorb it. As the novelist, Martha Benson says, “video games are the main reasons for the destruction of this generation.”


Word count: 625


Descriptive: Q) Describe a Train ride By Ibrahim Khan 10-F



In the warm golden wheat fields the train rowed like a bird gliding in the wind . I was sitting in one of the many sleepers of the steam powered train . The compartment was small yet spacious. The walls of the compartment were covered in a bright green wallpaper with rosy pink imprinted lilies. I was sitting on the fuzzy leather cushioned seats that were situated on both sides the compartment.on my side was a large window frame that opened up to the wheat fields.i had my newspaper in my hand with the sunlight falling on it. A cup of bright bronze coloured whisky was sitting on the table rippling in the rhythm with the rumbling of the train.

The trains wheels would screech and bang. The sound was almost like a bird flapping its wings. Now and then the conductor would pull on the train horn and the train would growl like a bull. The sound of the train with the slight rumbling of gentleman outside my compartment was oddly in a way peaceful.

In an unusual way the train provided many scents for my nose.from the outside the smell of burning coal and steam was present and right outside my sleeper I could smell a very familiar scent of black coffee that someone had probably left around.even the smell of fresh printed paper came from the newspaper I was reading.

The cold breeze from the outside was just enough .not to cold and too warm either .it felt soothing on my arm.

As the would gallop into a tunnel it would roar one more time before entering the darkness. I never got used to it .it would always catch me by surprise. The trains shouts would always catch me by surprise. The trains shouts would get even more dreadful it entered the tunnel. The darkness would swallow everything . It almost seemed like entering the underworld, full of darkness and screams of terror

However , the best part was seeing the light at the end of the tunnel. Leaving the darkness a bright light would hit you and the painful screeches of the train would subside. In a way it was almost like a train to paradise

Discursive: Q. Should Teens be able to buy violent video games? Discuss. By Abubakr Faisal


The world of video games and virtual reality (VR) is growing incredibly in the twenty first century. From teens to adults, everybody is interested in playing video games. YouTube and Twitch TV have made it so much easier for the younger generation to make money. The trending part of these apps always show the gaming videos being the most viewed ones on the entire app. Nowadays most of the gaming videos are streamed by teenagers and they tend to become more successful in life at young age than their parents could be their whole life. And most of these gaming videos show a great deal of violence in them. People with weapons slaughtering each other for their entertainment. A lot of people have the same question in mind: Should teens be able to buy violent video games? Should violence violence really be the thing that goes around the younger generation’s mind? Should they even be allowed to watch these violent video games, let alone be able to play them? All these questions should be discussed in the essay below.


The most asked question right now is whether teens should be able to play violent video games or not. Charlie’s parents had the same question in mind when Charlie started to become very aggressive towards everyone and very violent if no one listened to him or if things did not go according to him. His parents claimed that they had let Charlie play Call Of Duty (COD) since the age of 9. Within 5 years, Charlie had changed dramatically and the change had occurred before he had turned into a teenager. Research from S.T.A.R Laboratories shows us that when a child is born until the age 18, his brain is still developing and learning. Which is why you are considered mature enough at the age of 18. While his brain was still in its development stage, Charlie adapted to the changes in his environment and the end result is what we now know about Charlie.

On the contrary, opposers of the topic may suggest that Charlie’s brain did not go haywire just because of playing COD. There are other games similar to COD that can also deal a significant amount of damage to a child’s brain like the Battlefield and Halo series. Research from the Video Game Testing Centre (VGTC) shows that all of these violent games have 85% to 90% chance of changing the mind of people under 12. Opposers also claim that all the violent games have an age limit stated at the bottom left corner of the disc case which goes to say that it is not the developers fault but the parents own fault as they buy these video games for their children.


Moreover, supporters of the topic claim that the younger generation is becoming very violent. Sara, a teacher of grade 3 at Froebels International School, claims that the children she teaches are becoming violent and aggressive by the day. A recent survey conducted by the school shows that about 70% of the children just watch YouTubers play these video games rather than playing them themselves because they claim that they are only allowed to play on weekends. This survey shows that even though the children are not playing the games themselves, they are still getting inspired by these popular YouTubers. The school also claims that the number of fights per year has also spiked and that a more number of fights get reported every month than before. The supporters of the topic claim that these video games are making their children more aggressive than ever.

However, people against the topic claim that it is the parents fault that they do not notice what their children are watching. They claim that while there is an option of using the YouTube Kids app, the children use the YouTube app which is for the adults. They claim that the children, if they want to watch something, should watch it on YouTube Kids, which is appropriate for their age. Research from YouTube themselves shows that there is 35% drop in the downloads for the YouTube Kids app and a 30% increase in the downloads for the YouTube app. Opposers claim that the parents have bought their children phones and they have free will to watch whatever they want.


Likewise, advocates of the topic maintain that their children who either play these video games or watch them have made them more aggressive than ever. The neuroscientist, Trevor Bungs, did a recent case study in which 100 students’ brains were tested. The test results showed that 64 students’ brains were affected by these violent video games. Advocates use this information to prove that these violent video games are affecting the minds of the younger generation.

However, challengers of the topic claim that not all the children played these video games and that some of them were affected just by violent movies, and that not everyone plays violent video games. A recent case study from the VGTC shows that the most trending video game in 2019 was Minecraft which is not a violent video game. In fact, they claim that Minecraft actually boosted the minds of the teenagers who played it as it requires to use your brain.


In my opinion, teenagers should not be able to buy violent video games as it makes them more violent and that they should actually play games which involves solving mysteries and puzzles which would actually help to boost their brains instead of ruining them.

Discursive: ‘Parents do not have enough control over their children’  By Areesha Obaid

As the world has evolved over the many years so has the style of parenting. In old years there was a certain way of parenting mostly strict, and children would have to follow their parents. Parents controlled their children, but over the years this has changed and parents have changed the way of parenting and let their children loose off the control. Do you think you have enough control over your child?
Firstly, supporters of the topic believe that, parents do not keep a check on their children which is why they have lost control of their children. The mother of Adrian a drug addict at just the age of 17 states that if she had kept a check on Adrians phone he would not be a drug addict today.
In retrospect, critics of the topic suggest that parents should not keep a check on their child’s phone. After a recent research Dr. Carl a psychologist states,”These days children are very possessive of their cellphones. It acts as an emotional vault and if you snoop through it, they feel as if their privacy has been invaded.” He further says,”You should just ask your child about what they are doing or just wait for them to communicate with you.” Basically you should not invade your child’s privacy as that would result in a loss of trust.
Secondly, followers of the topic argue that parents should not always listen to everything a child says. A boarding school principal states,”Emotions make your child weak, they are just an excuse. It is not necessary to listen to everything they say.” This is how they control children.
In contrast, people against the topic argue that parents need to listen to what their child is saying and communicate with them. A recent research shows that 80% of the teenagers fall into depression and other stress related problems because they can’t share their problems to their parents; the people who they can actually fully trust and depend on. Clearly this means that parents should listen to whatever their child is trying to tell them. They believe this gives their child confidence and does not try to do anything that would hurt the child or their parents.
Furthermore, advocates of the topic maintain that parents should not let their child work when they are in school. They state that when a child goes to work no one is responsible for them and they are under no supervision. This is the time where they can go where they want and do whatever they want to do. This gives them too much freedom and no one holds them accountable for what they do with the money they earn. This leads to parents losing control over their child. This is mounting evidence that parents do not have control over their children.
On the other hand challengers of the topic claim that, children should be given the freedom to work when they are in school. A teen interviewed said that, “I work part time jobs it adds to my experience, my education is not affected and doing this job just helps me save money for college and shopping.” Parents claim that it brings no harm to the child and just helps the child be financially independent and teaches them how to be adults. This clearly shows that giving a child freedom does not lead them to be out of control.
Some people believe that, parents should check their children’s phones, not give them freedom, and should not listen to what their children are saying to them. Similarly, some people believe the opposite. I believe that whether a child is under control or not depends on how the child is brought up. I further believe that parents should not invade a child’s privacy, they should definitely listen to them and give them limited freedom.

Descriptive Essay: Describe a Train Ride By Eman Shahid


Describe a train ride


It was here that I would start my heart-wrenching journey to finally part ways with a close, deceased relative in Nagasaki, Japan. I boarded the train and familiarized myself with its interior; I would be here for a while. I heard the working of machinery below me as the sound fought for dominance within my eardrums, accompanying this war for dominance was the subtle sounds of chattering birds as they awoke on the call of dawn.


It was only five in the morning so this was expected. Many passengers were asleep as their minds journeyed the heavens and beyond while I was here, very much awake and very much exhausted. The sounds being made by the awakening of machinery had died down. Now I was left alone with a comfortable silence that surrounded my frame: a wide shot which captured my loneliness almost unbelievably.


Yes, as I looked around there was noting of importance around me. I could not see cheery companions who could have brightened up the drab and dreary interiors of the blue-grey cabin. It was as if I was alone in a vast, dark ocean unable to see what came ahead and unable to see what lied below; birthing a monster of anxiousness and anxiety with myself. I felt suffocated.


Alas! As the gold sunlight crept up the tinted window stills and pricked my hazel eyes I could finally see the color which in reality I hadn’t realized was surrounding me. The warm embrace of the sun illuminated the once dark and drab corners of my worn out cabin and breathed a new life within her walls. She was grateful, and she showed me this by enveloping me into a tundra of colors that shone through from the tinted glass windows. Only a lingering feeling of anxiety that plagued the atmosphere remained and a feeling of calm and perseverance washed over me, showering me with a feeling that I craved.


As the sunlight greeted my pupils I turned to greet her back. This was when I admired the lush green marshes that stood along the train. The sky was still gloomy and cloudy but the ray of happiness that shone through made an overwhelming difference. The countryside of Nagasaki looked like the gardens of eve-the gardens that god had once touched.  The sunlight dancing through the fields illuminated the vibrant fruit and exotic flowers that stood amongst crowds. My eardrums were also filled by people finally waking up from their deep and much needed slumber and made the moment an euphoric beauty.


I let my mind wander-it went through paths and hallways and such until a picture was embedded into my mind, that of the train I was sitting in. an image of the train right before the break of dawn submerged itself into the depths of my mind.


The colorful, worn out red paint that clinged to the ancient metals mixed well with the darkness and void alongside her. She was unique in a world often filled with forgotten experiences made to take you away from the times that needed to be erased and carry you forward, to a new beginning, new feeling and away from the dark depths of the ocean you were within, towards a warm shore waiting for your arrival.


Time had passed- my moods had passed and I finally felt like myself again. The hard blue cushions that surrounded my body no longer suffocated me but embraced me in a feeling that told me things would go on a right path. As the primary colored tinted light passed through the flower patterned windows and surrounded me ethereally, I felt myself glance at the running marches that kept up and felt slumber greet me like an old friend.

Q. Write a story, true or imaginary, entitled, ‘The Challenge’ by Eman Shahid


The challenge


It was insanely manic. Grayson pressed hard on the poorly made speeding pedal in this bland, rundown vehicle. A little more pressure, he thought, and the seventies style roadrunner would surely falter his faith, but he couldn’t stop. Indeed as he looked back continuously, flashes of blue and red greeted his vision as he remembered what he did, what he was pushed towards doing, what his being didn’t at all regret the slightest.


“Where in the world is Tim exactly?”


He felt the words usher out of his mouth in a frenzy. Tim, his ‘assistant’ in this wild hunt, was nowhere to be seen in his equally drab, equally run down, white, god knows what vehicle. Just then a pristine blur caught his eye in the rear. Tim it was, gracing him with his appreciated egotistical presence.


“Missed me?”


“Just do the damned thing we signed up for.”


Grayson’s anxiety was creeping up, up and up his vision where he felt tears prick his eyes. There was a difference between regretting something and not wanting to do something, Grayson agrees strongly with the latter. He absolutely had to do this, even if it was the epitome of unjust- call the man and his actions bad, but the reason? Don’t even try to.


He has indeed, as stated before, signed up for this. His wife and unborn daughter were counting on the long-term profits stealing medicinal drugs would give them; only if they knew the nature of his earnings just this once, and then maybe, just maybe they would persuade him to stop his unjustly self crusade.


“Speed up loser! And turn right,” came a shrill shriek.


Tim could be seen on the edge of his persona. Grayson listened but this didn’t stop the holy red and blue that bled justice through the highway with the aim of putting their hunt to a halt.


Grayson caught a glimpse of Tim in his car conversing with someone. He did not know whom. Just then the sirens that followed him came to a cease stop, but not before a large crash greeted his eardrums.  Grayson did not dare to look back, because whoever Tim was conversing with had stopped talking and a sight of metal, as well as blue and red tinted streets had displayed itself onto the rear view mirror.


“One of my ally’s just gave her life for you. Try being grateful for once.”


Grayson was seething. ‘Grateful?’. He was grateful for many things. Things like the brown package that decorated his passenger seat and the fact that he actually lived the heist- grateful that because of the demon that called himself Tim he would surely live to see his wife again. Oh his wife-who importantly this was all for.


He found himself calming down with every passing thought of her graceful, gorgeous being and their unnamed and unborn daughter who would now live to see the light of day. However Grayson was indeed grateful for the sacrifice that had been made in his favor, although he would never admit it at the moment; delight crossed his features.


His seventies style roadrunner and Tim’s white vehicle sat at the junction of roads. Grayson and Tim themselves were positioned in a drab and disgusting alleyway, where Grayson was sure that this had happened before-the place was fitting for such an exchange.


“The deal is done. You keep the medicine and I keep the non-medicinal drugs, and alas I take the credit, happy?”


“Of course,” came Grayson’s bland response to his literal partner in crime, Tim- yet another scandalous revelation to anyone’s ears other than theirs.


Therefore both parties had agreed to never speak of this or to never think of this event ever again. As Grayson went home he was greeted by the stunning, beautiful, ethereal, dying face of his beloved. As he handed her the brown paper bag he recalled the challenging event that had occurred mere moments before.


The challenge of coming to terms with mankind’s limit, a limit that he had passed. Grayson had also come to terms with the challenge that was to come, that of his daughter’s arrival; the challenge of fatherhood would be the most difficult challenge he would face.


But before that. The greatest challenge of all was him coming to terms with what he did. This challenge was something he lost, lost with his sanity, sanity that would never come back. The man was deeply scarred- he had seen and experienced too much. This was the last thought that stood idle in his mind and had engraved itself into his being the moment he willingly stepped inside the dreaded Arkham Asylum.