Category Archives: AO2

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Deena Shehzad

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Text one is titled ‘human noise pollution is everywhere, even in the national parks’ and is written by Sarah Kaplan. It is extracted from the Washington post. This passage contains a conative and informative purpose. The style is descriptive and expository. The language used is formal yet simple and the audience may be readers who are interested in nature. Sarah Kaplan has employed several rhetorical devices to best convey her message such as figures of speech, expert opinions, jargon and more.

Firstly it can be seen that there is personification in the extract. To specify, the author claims: “the whistling of the wind” and “the whispering branches.” Personification is highly effective in producing a description that readers can clearly picture. It also prevents a description from becoming dull.

Secondly it can be noted that the author has included jargon in the extract such as “buffer zones” and “HVAC systems.” Although Jargon can create a language barrier that may prevent readers from understanding some information, it portrays the author as well researched and knowledgeable on the topic. As jargon refers to terms used for certain fields of profession. Hence it can be used to better convince readers and leave a good impression of the writer.

Additionally there are expert opinions available in the given text. Experts mentioned include “Megan McKenna, a scientist with the National Park Service’s Natural Sounds

and Night Skies division and a co-author on the report” Expert opinions are a powerful tool to add weightage and believability to the authors statement. As readers will most likely trust and accept the words of an expert. 

Furthermore it can be noted that there are statistics present throughout the extract such as “63 percent” and “10-decibal.” Here the statistics have been given in the form of research. This assists to back up the claim of the author and therefore make him/her further credible/believable. Statistics also add variety to the text by giving it a scientific feel. 

Moving on it can be noticed that there is background information provided for readers. To highlight: “noise pollution makes it more difficult for plants to reproduce,” and “listening to nature sounds with reductions in stress, improvements in mood

and other markers of good health.” Background information as such can enable readers to better comprehend the context of the passage by being well informed. Additionally it leaves readers with new and fascinating information they may have not known before. 

Moreover readers can observe that the author has used a list in her writing. To identify, the passage claims: “air traffic overhead, growling car engines, children shrieking nearby, mining and drilling taking place miles away.” Listing allows a large amount of information to be conveyed in an efficient manner rather than dragging on a statement. It also is highly effective for the audience to absorb information. 

Lastly Sarah Kaplan has employed emotional appeal throughout the extract. For example “putting wild creatures at risk” and it can change animals’ behavior with consequences for the entire ecosystem.” Readers who value topics such as animals, nature and ecosystems. This can trigger strong emotions as it may be a sensitive topic for some. It can also be highly impactful and used to persuade readers who hold significance to the subject at hand.

In conclusion, author Sarah Kaplan has formed a highly informative as well as entertaining piece to keep readers engaged by using several literary devices. Some of which include jargon, statistics, background information, emotion appeal and more.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Uzair Shah

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The passage “Human noise pollution is everywhere, even in National parks”, written by Sarah Kaplan is from the Washington Post. The author writes the passage in an expository style and the purpose of it is informative about noise pollution. The audience can range from teens to young adults including people who are particularly fond about the given subject and wildlife. The tone is calm and quiet yet gives a sense of authority to the narrator.

One of the main ways the author interprets information to the audience is by using statistics. For example, “63 percent of protected areas”, and “14 percent of critical habitats”. These give the information perceived by the reader more meaning and it manipulates them into agreeing with the given facts. Thus this creates an involuntary sense of trust between the author and the reader.

The author uses an overstatement on line 6, “you could almost hear your own heartbeat”. She executes this statement in a way that it would be seen as exaggeration to make her point more dramatic. This is to give an idea to the readers of how quiet the valley really is which will attract the readers to want to know more about the place.

On line 8 the author proposes a rhetorical question, “shocking, right?” This manipulates the reader into agreeing with their view as it is already embedded into their minds that they already know what the answer is.

Although it is not said directly, persuasion is left to the reader as something to think about afterwards. In the last paragraph in which they not only talk about nature’s benefits like the rest of the passage, but they mention human benefits. This may have been for informative purposes but it also hints that the readers themselves should contribute in reducing noise pollution.

The author demonstrates reason and logic into her passage. In the third last paragraph she mentions step by step how plants have trouble reproducing due to noise pollution. This gives strength to their argument about the harm of noise pollution and leaves the reader with information they can pass on to others and thus they become interested in the rest of the passage.

The expository and persuasive style have achieved getting through to the audience and leaves an impact on them. In conclusion the readers will now have a different perspective of the wildlife and the impact of human pollution in general.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Unzila Mati

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 The writer has utilised several techniques to make the article interesting, compelling and informative. The purpose to write this article or report is to inform readers of the growing problem of noise pollution. The target audience ranges from teens to adults to the elderly. The language here is semi-formal and the tone is serious, thoughtful, worried and commanding.

The writer has used a variety of devices to inform the reader of the consequences of noise pollution towards wildlife, specifically birds. He writes about the mental health of birds and how the problem is impacting them in a certain way, such as the large, unsettling sound of natural gas treatment facilities causes stress levels to peak (her stress hormone levels became skewed), a bird losing it’s feathers even though it is noise tolerant (a common, hardy species, that is generally considered to be noise tolerant, was smaller, it’s feather’s bedraggled), which shocks the readers, and the risk of predators (Animals are constantly surveying their environment and making decisions based on risk. And one thing noise does is degrade this really important channel).By writing so, the writer manages to surprise the readers and immediately helps to get an overwhelming response. In addition, it uses logos and has quoted experts in it to make it believable and reasonable, which the author successfully does, for example, when the author writes, ‘ “The body is just starting to break down,” Lowry said’.

The purpose is to highlight and bring the fact into account. Although the report is meant to inform and aware the readers of the problem of pollution to help make it serious, it uses pathos and emotional diction to make the readers realise how big the problem is. Which is the reason why such an overwhelming response occurs by the reader. For example, ‘Scientists couldn’t ask the bluebird what she was feeling. But when they sampled the bird’s blood, as part of a two-hundred and forty nesting sites surrounding natural gas treatment). The language used is semi-formal by the use of words such as ‘vigilance’ and ‘bluebird’ for example. This helps to maintain the serious tone and helps to make the audience take the topic seriously.

The audience is mainly, adolescence to the old along with nature and animal lovers. By presenting such a subject , especially to people who enjoy the outdoors and animals, it encourages them to do something quickly to stop this situation that is negatively affecting the environment. Additionally, the topic of climate change has risen and has brought action into the planet. So, by showing such a topic to the audience during such a time, actions can be taken more quickly as people will listen, merely due to many evidence. 

In conclusion, the writer successfully highlights the topic, informs the reader by presenting facts and experts’ advice and it has a serious and emotional tone. It is effective, achieving an immediate response.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meanings? By Areesha Obaid

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This passage ‘So you’re lost in the wilderness-these tips could save your life’ is an article written by the author Mark Jenkins. The purpose of this passage is to inform the reader about things you can do to be found if you get lost in the wild, the language of this article is formal. Furthermore the audience of this passage are young adults and adults, and the tone of the passage is directive (as it gives directions) and straight forward, in addition the theme of the passage is about hiking.This passage is informing its readers about the ways they can be found if they get lost while hiking in the mountains.

Firstly this passage contains rhetorical questions, and a lot of them. This is evident by “How long ago was that?”, “How do you feel?”, and “can you see any landmarks?” Rhetorical questions give the reader something to think about. In this situation the writer has used them to make the reader think about these questions;as if they were a lost person in the mountains, he has directed them to think about the answers which are the nearest solutions.

Secondly, the writer has used alliteration, this is evident by, “simply stop” and “nearing night.” Alliteration emphasizes and reinforces the meaning of a statement. Here the author has used it to while telling the readers about what to do; look at nature’s signs and calm down. 

Thirdly, the author has used generalization in the passage. This is evident by, “thousands of hikers get lost every year.” This is to tell the reader that it is not something abnormal nor is it the end of the world as it is possible to find your way back as those hikers do. Generalization helps the author to interact with the reader which makes it seem that many people do it and they think about it as a group.

Furthermore, the passage uses an anecdote. This is clearly shown when it is said, “I’ve been lost in remote wilderness.” This shows the reader that he is a survivor himself and has experienced this situation himself. Anecdote connects the reader to the passage and involves them in it mentally as well. 

In addition, this passage uses an acronym which is clear when it is said “ STOP.” Acronyms help the readers to remember the steps given. In this passage the author has used STOP as an acronym to help them to remember, stop, think, observe, and plan.

In conclusion, the author has used rhetorical questions, generalization, alliteration, anecdote and acronym to convey the meaning and directions used.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meanings. By Deena Shehzad

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Text one is titled ‘human noise pollution is everywhere, even in the national parks’ and is written by Sarah Kaplan. It is extracted from the Washington post. This passage contains a conative and informative purpose. The style is descriptive and expository. The language used is formal yet simple and the audience may be readers who are interested in nature. Sarah Kaplan has employed several rhetorical devices to best convey her message such as figures of speech, expert opinions, jargon and more.

Firstly it can be seen that there is personification in the extract. To specify, the author claims: “the whistling of the wind” and “the whispering branches.” Personification is highly effective in producing a description that readers can clearly picture. It also prevents a description from becoming dull.

Secondly it can be noted that the author has included jargon in the extract such as “buffer zones” and “HVAC systems.” Although Jargon can create a language barrier that may prevent readers from understanding some information, it portrays the author as well researched and knowledgeable on the topic. As jargon refers to terms used for certain fields of profession. Hence it can be used to better convince readers and leave a good impression of the writer.

Additionally there are expert opinions available in the given text. Experts mentioned include “Megan McKenna, a scientist with the National Park Service’s Natural Sounds

and Night Skies division and a co-author on the report” Expert opinions are a powerful tool to add weightage and believability to the authors statement. As readers will most likely trust and accept the words of an expert. 

Furthermore it can be noted that there are statistics present throughout the extract such as “63 percent” and “10-decibel.” Here the statistics have been given in the form of research. This assists to back up the claim of the author and therefore make him/her further credible/believable. Statistics also add variety to the text by giving it a scientific feel. 

Moving on it can be noticed that there is background information provided for readers. To highlight: “noise pollution makes it more difficult for plants to reproduce,” and “listening to nature sounds with reductions in stress, improvements in mood

and other markers of good health.” Background information as such can enable readers to better comprehend the context of the passage by being well informed. Additionally it leaves readers with new and fascinating information they may have not known before. 

Moreover readers can observe that the author has used a list in her writing. To identify, the passage claims: “air traffic overhead, growling car engines, children shrieking nearby, mining and drilling taking place miles away.” Listing allows a large amount of information to be conveyed in an efficient manner rather than dragging on a statement. It also is highly effective for the audience to absorb information 

Lastly Sarah Kaplan has employed emotional appeal throughout the extract. For example “putting wild creatures at risk” and it can change animals’ behavior with consequences for the entire ecosystem.” Readers who value topics such as animals, nature and ecosystems. This can trigger strong emotions as it may be a sensitive topic for some. It can also be highly impactful and used to persuade readers who hold significance to the subject at hand.

In conclusion, author Sarah Kaplan has formed a highly informative as well as entertaining piece to keep readers engaged by using several literary devices. Some of which include jargon, statistics, background information, emotion appeal and more.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Noorulain Saif

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This article written by Mark Jenkins holds different tips on what to do if one is lost in wilderness. The themes of this passage can be getting lost, adventures, saving your life, taking risks and mindfulness. The tone of this passage is semi formal as it can be seen in the diction and the language is uncomplicated and straight forward. The audience can be all those who wish to go explore the wilderness and need proper guidance before starting their adventures. The structure of this text has long and short paragraphs and the purpose of this essay is solely to inform the readers. 

Firstly, the writer uses a personal anecdote in this passage; ‘I’ve been lost in the remote wilderness of Tibet and the Sahel desert outside Timbuktu….’ This helps to connect with the reader and also serves as ethos in the passage.

Secondly, the writer has a repeated use of rhetorical questions throughout his passage. In every paragraph, three to four rhetorical questions are given with help to engage with the reader and also give examples of the tips that the writer states for example in the line, ‘Think about time. How long have you been hiking?’. This helps in enforcing the writer’s point on the reader. 

The writer also has a repeated use of punctuation in his passage. For example, ‘Don’t move until you…. (if and when…..carefully)’  The use of brackets in the passages helps in adding any additional information without disrupting the structure of the sentence. The use of hyphens is also emphasized in the following phrases ‘And finally – can you make a call?’ and ‘You don’t die from not knowing where you are – you die from bad decisions.’ this again helps in adding information.

 The writer frequently addresses the reader directly; as in with the word ‘you’. This again brings in pathos as the writer directly communicates with the reader.

The passage also has a use of an acronym, ‘STOP’ with a further explanation of the letters in the acronym. This helps the writer in presenting his points in a more presentable and memorable manner as the readers can then memorize this word and associate it with the other words joined to it by the reader.

There is a use of alliteration in the passage as well; ‘nearing night’, ‘leaving landmarks’, and ‘panic pass’. This helps in the rhythm of the passage as well as engaging the reader well.

In conclusion, although the writer uses less literary devices he is successful in presenting tips to survive in the wild with the help of other techniques. 

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Javeria Husain

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This passage, titled “So you’re lost in the wilderness- these tips could save your life”, is written by the author Mark Jenkins. The purpose of this text was to inform the readers about some life saving tips whilst hiking. The audience can be assumed to be hikers, or any interest group related to survival and hiking would have been attracted to this passage. The theme of this passage can be survival, and hiking as the passage mainly focuses about how the readers can improve their hiking to a safer level. 

Firstly, the author uses a well descriptive approach to its readers while trying to reach his point across, words like “wilderness, trembling” are used by the author while describing. This can be helpful for the reader as they would be more aided to how to perceive and fully understand the author’s message so that they could practically carry it out the right way as well if they would ever choose to. The author’s vocabulary and descriptive techniques guide the reader with a perspective of the author itself, which helps develop a mutual understanding between the reader and the writer. Adding onto that, the author’s vocabulary is also shown to be descriptive as well. Words like “anxiety,craggy, retrace” help the reader visualise with the writer. This helps the reader to have a clear illustration in their mind and fulfills the point of the writer as he tries to convey his message to his audience. 

Secondly, the use of rhetorical questions are present, direct questions addressing the reader like “ What should you do? Can you call? Can you text?” are used by the writer. The author constantly involves the reader after each statement he passes to individually grasp the reader’s direct and full attention.The use of this technique helps engage with the readers directly, which further helps develop a bond of understanding and helps engage the reader when the author addresses them. This helps the reader to keep up with the author’s thought process. Adding onto that, the author has tactfully structured his paragraphing style to short and direct, brief sentences, following with a rhetorical question at the end of each one, which also further helps the reader and the writer to constantly be engaging with each other and keeping up side to side. The impact of the short sentence structure helps keep the reader alert and engaged as much as possible, as it stands out more boldly to the reader and fully grasps their attention and focus on the writer’s point. “…It depends”. “If you do all these things the chances are you’ll be found”, the way these sentences are structured also use the effective use of acronyms, for the word “ STOP”.  This helps the writer also assure the reader and helps develop a mutual bond of understanding and trust in between the two. Along with keeping the reader engaged, short sentences also help the reader to keep thinking as well. This also adds onto a hint of mystery and helps the reader to emphasise more on the writer’s point to understand it better.  This engagement with the reader is very tactful as the reader feels acknowledged and a bond is developed with a reliable level of understanding in between the reader and the writer upon the focusing point.

Thirdly, there is a use of strong punctuation by the author. The author punctuates his sentences with the use of full stops, question marks, semi colons, colons and brackets and hyphens. The use of these helps the author punctuate his sentences while meaningfully holding the intended effect upon the reader. Adding onto that, the author has also used effective vocabulary in conveying his message. There is a repetitive use of alliteration present in the author’s style of writing. “Simply stop, panic pass, commonly called”. This helps create a rhythm and mood in the writer’s message while having similar connotations. This helps the reader also be entertained whilst retaining the information that is coming in from the writer.

In conclusion of this literary analysis, the author has used tactful literary techniques as discussed in the paragraphs above.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Ali Ul Qudur

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The title given to this passage is ‘Some birds are so stressed by noise pollution it looks like they have PTSD’ and is an article written by The Washington Post. the title immediately tells the reader that this passage is about the mental health of birds and in this case, western bluebirds. 

The structure of this passage comprises of various sentence structures, punctuations and paragraphs. The passage has mostly long sentences and the writer has uniquely conveyed his message in short sentences by the use of a semicolon which makes it a parenthetical clause. ‘Her stress hormone levels became skewed; her health deteriorated.’ is an example. Furthermore, the passage has conjunctions and connectors to justify and further elaborate her statement. The paragraphs are long with a lot of detail and quotations and statements have been used. The effect this brings is that the author clearly understands the author’s point and start agreeing with them.

The language used in this passage is formal and casualty isn’t present. However, the author has used quotations and speech. The effect this brings is that the reader gets to know that the topic which is being discussed is important and should be taken seriously.

The Tone of this passage is negative as the author talks about the mental health of the birds and how noise pollution affects their mental health. ‘Habitat degradation is always conceived of as clear-cutting, or, you know, changing the environment in a physical way.’ Likewise, the style of the passage is persuasive and informative as the author tries to make the reader realise about the health of the western bluebirds and how the population has been affected over the years due to habitat degradation. 

The purpose of this passage is to inform the reader and make them realise the effects on birds and how we humans have destroyed the habitat due to industrialization. Similarly, the audience that would be concerned and would read this are adults, young adults or anyone who is concerned about mother nature and the life around it.

Also, the author has maintained a very serious tone and hasn’t given hints of vernacular language. ‘It’s an adaptation to an untenable situation,’.This is formal and straight forward. This makes the reader more concerned about the topic that has been brought up and is inspired to change for the better.

The point of view and the narration is in the third person as the author constantly mention the bird and how it has struggled and gotten itself into a trap. ‘The bluebird didn’t realize what she was getting herself into’. The author also mentions every detail – from the beginning until the end.

The use of quotations in this article also shows the reader that this issue shouldn’t be taken on a lighter note. ‘ “Habitat degradation is always conceived of as clear cutting, or, you know, changing the environment in a physical way.” ’.The statements make the reader realise about the damage and effects by involving them and telling them that we could imagine how it would feel if we were in the same scenario.

The author also asks the reader rhetorical questions like, ‘Why is hearing so important to health?’ and then instantly answers it without asking another question. This makes the reader realise and think about the question and also grabs the attention of the reader.

The author uses triples like, “cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal issues, extreme fatigue.” This entertains the reader and is also factual as it talks about health by using similar medical terms.

Also, not a lot of figures of speech have been used as this is a formal passage but the author says, “Goldilocks distance” which is a metaphor meaning that the distance is perfect – not too far and not too close. This entertains the reader and grabs their attention especially in this formal passage. 

Lastly, alliterations such as ‘clear connection’  have been used. This play on words entertains the reader and engages the reader.

In conclusion, this article has successfully persuaded the reader and make them realise about the mental health of birds and how they get PTSD due to noise pollution. The author was successful as he used various techniques and the minor details made this passage very persuasive and attractive.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Rayam Rizwan

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The title of the following test is referred to as “Some birds are so stressed by noise pollution it looks like they have PTSD and the magazine from which it is extracted from is “Washington Post”. The following passage is an informative essay and its purpose is to inform and give the readers information about the western bluebird. The language used  by the author of this text is very professional and formal, making it a formal extract. Since it is an informative extract, the audience for whom this is aimed at are both adults and young adults.

Firstly, many uses of statistics can be seen in many areas of the text such as, “240 sites surrounding”. The author has used this particular technique to give us a better and clearer and sharper image in the readers’ minds as we get to know exactly how many nests were present. This use of statistics helps the author to convey his message more clearly and helps him to convey his thoughts and ideas since our understanding of the blue bird is enhanced and we get a clearer idea of the overall text.

Moving on, the use of doubles and triples has also helped the author to be successful in conveying his messages and thoughts for example, “experience cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal issues, extreme fatigue.” The use of triples form an image for the readers and makes it more understandable for the reader since it is adding emphasis on the particular element the readers wants us to emphasize on. This not only makes it easier for the adults and young adults to understand but also helps the author to convey his message and inform us about the bluebird, making him even more successful in his purpose to inform.

In addition, the author has also used professional references in order to make the extract more believable and making the facts put forth more reliable for example, “National Academy of Sciences.” The use of these references again makes them more reliable and helps the readers to paint an image in their minds and understand more efficiently the ideas he is putting forward. This way the readers are more informed about the blue bird which helps the author, again, to convey his thoughts and makes him successful in his purpose to inform.

Following these techniques, the author has also used figurative language to overall balance out this extract. An example is an alliteration which is, “her health” and “paper published”. This adds emphasis and makes the passage more attractive and entertaining as well as hooks the reader since they are entertained by the use of figurative language. Due to the readers being hooked to the passage, the readers understand the passage more clearly and the thoughts and facts of the author more understandable.

Further into the analysis, it is noticed that the author has also used proper nouns and jargons on the text such as, “New Mexico ”.  This makes the text more reliable and gives us a deeper understanding as we get to know more about the passage and its elements and helps us to get a clever image in our minds, helping the author to fulfill his purpose to inform more efficiently.

Following this, the author has used dialogues and characters in his text such as, “Lowry” and an example of a dialogue is, “The body is just starting to break down. This unique technique also helps the readers to understand facts about the blue bird and an image is built in the reader’s mind, making the purpose of the author more successful as this technique informs us even more about the bluebird.

Furthermore, the author has decided to use a friendly and soft tone to state facts about the blue bird. This hooks the readers to the extract as  they are drawn in due to the feeling of friendliness and jolly words such as, “It gets really tricky”. This again draws in the readers and they are informed more clearly and gives the readers a clear and sharp image, making the author successful in informing.

In conclusion, the author has used many useful techniques in order to inform f adults and young adults and overall, the author was successful enough in his task as he has used a balance of figurative language as well as other language techniques.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Adan Irfan.

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The text is titled ‘ getting lost ’ written by Matt Inman . He has written  an autobiography in which share his experience with the audience . he theme of the extract It’s a travel blog which shows an experience of  the writer of finding a city to see the green fields. The purpose of the writer is to entertain the reader as he shares his experience with the audience. The auteur has an intended audience which are mainly people who are interested in travelling and are tourists. But certainly he has also attracted young adults who love adventure. The tone of the passage is adventurous , as well willing to complete  his journey . The vocabulary used is simple with a hint of local dialect.   The structure of the passage is informal as he simply states everything that has happened with him . He has also used a sub topic ‘ lesson learned ’ .

Firstly the writer has used many Personal  pronouns like ‘I’  ‘ my’  which shows  that the author is narrating the story to the audience and is trying to present an informal extract.  The constant use of then involves the audience and  seems as if he is directly talking to them . 

Another thing he clearly mentions in his extract is an adventurous tone . With a lot of ups and downs you experience through your journey. ‘  getting lost makes for a much better story ’ and ‘ my guess is that this story will seem like a nightmare ’ . This statement is the evidence to my appeal put forth . As these lines convey that the author is used to getting into these kinds of troubles during his adventure thus he is now used to them . And the writer of the extract thinks that there is no Tesla fun until something goes wrong .

The whole first part of the text acts as an anecdote as the author narrates to his audience what actually happened . This appeal his evident from the statement ‘ I hopped on the bus ’ and ‘ at this point of the story ’  which makes the reader sympathetic and set ups  a scenario of the reader of the text  enjoying his extract . This appeal helps to bring a personal touch to extract as reader feels easy and comfortable while reader and analysis in his mind what  is going on 

A very common thing the writer has used through is symbolism which is evident from the fact ‘  you can picture me limping …’ , ‘ I stumbled upon the entrance of the subway ‘ and many more . This figure of speech  is used to add richness and colour to the text . Thus it conveys a deeper meaning to the audience that they experience the exact same thing the writer experienced. Thus appeal enhances the writer’s price of text and makes it more attention grabbing .

The author has stated his point of view clearly through the lines as he narrates his journey . And it is evident from the statement ‘  travel as taught me to relish the times ’ by which the authors want to convey to the reader of the text to understand . And to tell that very thing has pros and cons .

In conclusion the author has used several techniques to put forth his purpose . And to entertain the reader through the passage .