Category Archives: AO2

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Eman Bakht


This passage is titled ‘Some birds are so stressed by noise pollution it looks like they have PTSD’, the author has used a catchy title to grab the reader’s attention and persuade them into reading
the whole passage. The purpose of this piece of writing is to inform as it is informing people about noise pollution and what it does to birds. The tone of this passage is semi-formal as the writer talks about a
serious topic.

The writer gives expert opinion in the passage as there are names given, such as ‘Guralnick’ and ‘lowry’, this is used to make the passage more authentic and make the reader agree with the writer. The writer has used logos throughout the passage, this claim can be justified through the words ‘scientists’ and ‘Florida museum of Natural history’. This has been done to give authenticity to the claims made by the writer as well as give a sense of seriousness to the passage.

The writer uses the word ‘Stress’ many times throughout the passage to emphasise on its importance.

The writer has asked the reader a question in the passage, ‘Why is hearing so important to health?’ to engage the reader and keep the reader hooked. The writer also uses  the word ‘You’ to engage the

The writer also uses an alliteration ‘Take a toll’ to achieve the same effect which is too grab the reader’s attention and keep them hooked.

The use of dialogues in the passage,such as, ‘ “The body is just starting to break down,” Lowry said.’ This is to convey the points stated to the reader more clearly and so the reader can understand them better.

The writer also uses personification,’the days and weeks wore on’, to add a little colour to the text and interests the reader.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Rehan Awan.


The extract of “Human noise pollution is everywhere,even in the national parks” by Sarah Kaplan. The purpose of this is to inform the audience about national parks and the wilderness. The tone of the passage is semi formal.Language is quite simple for everyone to read easily.The audience of this extract can be all adults to young children.

It has been presented as a third person perspective.

The writer has shown facts to make his point more authentic and creditable for instance also influences the reader to agree with the writer for instance in the extract “But every 30 minutes, a jet flew overhead, shattering the fragile calm…”

Statistics have also been used in the extract to back up his facts as can be seen in the passage “14 percent of critical habitat were in the 10-decibel category”. Intended effect of statistics is to make the writers claim more real and authentic, it also hooks the reader and conveys them to read more and makes it a bit interesting.

In this extract, Personification is shown in the beginning for instance “ The whistling of the wind”.This makes the reader more interested in the extracted and makes him wanting to read more as the writer uses it in the beginning so the reader reads the whole extract with excitement, 

The writer has used quotation of some experts “When we think about wilderness,we think about dark skies, going to see outstanding scenery,” said Megan Mekenna, a scientist” by using quotation of experts the writer proves the point and grabs the reader’s attention and also gain the trust of the reader.

The writer uses jargon in the text as , “buffer-zones, HVAC systems” by this the writer makes it interesting for the reader to read and also makes the reader wanting to read more and is interested.

Finally, the writer successfully conveys idea through this extract about wilderness and nature. 

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Hasina Hashmi.


The title of this passage, very clearly stated is ‘Human noise pollution is everywhere, even in the national parks.’ written by Sarah Kaplan. The passage talks about researchers and environmental scientists exploring the effect that noise pollution has on even the most secluded areas and how it is disrupting not only the peace and serenity of parks but also putting animals in danger. The extract is quite formal almost like an article that is criticizing noise pollution but also going into great description of the park itself. The tone is judgmental in a way and also uses many statistics to further explain dangers. The audience that can read this can vary from adults to young teenagers that contribute to noise pollution of our society.

Moreover the writer has used a variety of literary devices and figures of speech to further enhance the quality, style and language of her writing.

First of all the first thing that can be seen is the use of various numbers and statistics in the passage for example, ‘63 percent’ , ‘10 extra decibels’ or ‘a fifth of protected areas.’ Now when using a good amount of statistics in your passage gives a great proper sense to the audience that what is happening is real. It adds a certain amount of realistic weight on the readers which further convinces them and informs them to decrease their noise pollution in the area. Furthermore adding these details makes the passage more formal and when it is read by other scientists or journalists, etc there is a higher chance that it will be taken more seriously.

Jargon has also been used by the writer in almost every paragraph. ‘National Park Service’ or ‘ ecologist at Colorado State University.’ The main purpose of the writer is to inform people about the dangers of noise pollution so by using heavy jargon it is realized that all evidence has been taken by real life researchers and not by random thus more trust develops between reader and writer. And so people start taking into consideration the severity of the situation as it has been proved by reliable sources.

‘Whistling of the wind’ or ‘whispering of the branches’ is an example of personification being used in the extract. The writer used this device to specifically focus on the peaceful and calming environment of a park. This makes the reader realize that there is little to no less noise in a park that sometimes you can hear the wind passing by or how the branches rustle against each other. It’s a very soothing noise which further convinces the reader to decrease their noise pollution so that the calming environment around them does not get spoiled or disrupted.

The writer has also used pathos to bring about the emotional sense of the reader. She says ‘ putting wild animals at risk’ or ‘ noise from humans is frightening or distracting.’ So the writer is not only explaining how noise pollution can disrupt the serenity when people go to parks but it can also possibly put different animals at risk from predators due to the fact that the majority of animals rely on their sense of hearing. So the writer has not only used a fact to convince the reader but also told them that they could possibly save an animal’s life which gives the reader an emotional connection.

In conclusion the writer has used many literary devices to convince the reader how noise pollution is disrupting our society and used a great description to show the reader what they are saving.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Maira Abdul Rehman.


This text is about, as the heading states, noise pollution. The writer starts off this passage with a small story to explain where her argument may be leading to. This is written to inform us about how noise pollution has affected wilderness and the fact that no place is safe from ‘human noises’ that is causing noise pollution and harm to species that have a habit in these forests. 

At first the writer states how quiet the forest is by comparing it to hearing your own heart beat. “It’s really a quiet experience, you’re almost hearing your own heart beat.” (lines 4-5)

But this peaceful picture was immediately ruined after the writer stated that a jet flew by every 30 minutes. It’s like she couldn’t escape these noises even if she wanted to. “It’s shocking right? You’re in the middle of nowhere, yet you still can’t escape the sounds of humans.” (lines 6-7)

The writer, Sarah Kaplan, has now started to dive deeper into the current issues of the world which is pollution, more specifically, noise pollution.  She has started off by stating how hard it can be to measure sound as it can not be detected by a satellite. “Unlike smog or light, sound cant be detected from a satellite.” instead to measure the sound they need to hike and put up sound detectors by hand. 

She had stated that they are protected areas that are kept away from unnatural sounds such as the sounds of cars and jets etc. but the 63 percent of that ‘protected area’ has been exposed to noise pollution. “63 percent of the protected areas experienced at least a three-decibel increase in sound levels caused by noise pollution.”

The critical Habitat of endangered species experienced “10 extra decibels of  sound, and 14 percent of the critical habitats were in the 10 decibel category.”  

The writer then goes to explain how noise pollution can be caused. “Growling car engines children shrieking nearby, mining and drilling taking place miles away.” 

Animals rely on hearing, such as a deer can be warned of his predator by hearing soft noise of the movement of bushes. “Animals heavily rely on their ability to hear minute natural noises.” “Noise pollution may cover up those sounds.” 

Noise pollution also makes it difficult for plants to grow. Noise pollution can scare away birds that would help in transporting seeds and pollination. (paragraph 12). “We’re realizing more and more and how essential it is to things you wouldn’t expect.” 

In the conclusion the writer has stated that animals are in danger because of human activities and really affects that growth and ecosystem. 

The writer has written down a perfect piece of explanation on how noise pollution affects wilderness and nature, how it can be harmful, and how it can really affect lives of animals and plants. She has included research and a small story of her own experience to clear up her explanation. 

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Saniyah Kashif.


The title of this text is “Human noise pollution is everywhere, even in the national parks.” The author of this extract is Sarah Kaplan. This text is an article describing the harmful effects of noise pollution. It is structured in mainly short paragraphs with a variation of sentence structure. The purpose of this extract is to inform the reader what effects we, humans, have on our environment. The writer has used both colourful and loaded words in her writing. The audience intended for this writing are young adults, adults and people interested in the natural environment of the earth. The tone of the text is positive and formal.

The writer has used triples in her writing, to add emphasis to her point, to engage the reader and make them feel involved. Some examples of this are,“Frighten, distract or harm animals,” and, “growling car engines, children shrieking nearby, mining and drilling taking place miles away.” 

The writer has also used alliteration such as, “So subtle,” “human health,” “shuttle systems,” and, “sounds scare.” This adds emphasis, reinforces meaning, is highly emotive, and creates an image in the reader’s mind.

The use of personification like,“Whistling of wind”and, “whispering branches of the trees.” engages the reader, adds weight to the authors point, and makes the reader feel involved. 

Evidence in the form of the journal science is used, “Human noises at least double the background sound levels”and “63 percent of protected areas experienced at least a three decibel increase in sound levels caused by noise pollution” this adds weight to back up the authors point, makes a particular point to persuade and positions the reader.

All of these devices help the author to convey their message.  

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Noorliza Rashid.


This passage is an extract taken from ‘The Washington Post’. The author of the passage is ‘Sarah Kaplan’. The passage is titled, ‘Human Noise Pollution is Everywhere, even in the National Parks’. The passage is an article written for a newspaper. The passage is interactive as well as persuasive. The purpose of the passage is to explain clearly the adverse effects of noise pollution on the natural environment. The syntax and lexis used in the passage are quite simple and understandable. The passage is informational. The audience meant for this passage are young adults and adults.

In this passage the author frequently interacts with the audience. For example “you’re almost hearing your own heartbeat” and “ we really should think about soundscapes too”. The reader maintains interest throughout the passage and finds answers to his questions through these interactions. The reader pays attention and remains attentive throughout the passage.

The author has also provided the audience with some statistics and facts. For example , ‘63 percent of protected areas experienced at least a 3 decibel increase in sound levels’ and ‘14 percent of critical habitats were in the 10 decibel category’. The use of statistics makes the audience aware of the situation being discussed at hand. It also shows that the author is well researched on the topic and wishes for the audience to agree with the point of view. This passage has also named some researches by scientists for example

“When we think about wilderness, we think about dark skies going to see outstanding scenery”, says Meghan Mckenna a scientist with the National Park Service’s Natural sounds and Night Skies. This shows that the author has done research on the topic to prove her point and provides the audience with evidence of what she wishes to prove.

The author has used figures of speech such as alliterations and hyperbole. For example ‘problem pervades’ , ‘tricky task’ , ‘human health’ and ‘specific site’. Alliterations focus the reader’s attention on a particular part of a text. They also provide detail and depth and make the text understandable to the reader, there is also a use of hyperbole in the text.

For example when the author says ‘shattering the fragile calm’ etc. the use of hyperbole in a text exaggerates a point trying to be made. As we can see in the example above the use of hyperbole has made the reader aware of the consequences and the damages faced by the environment. 

This passage includes a lot of personification. The use of personification connects the reader with the object that is being personified. It also makes the descriptions of non-human entities understandable to the reader as they provide the reader with detail.

For example ‘growling car engines’ , ‘ whispering branches of trees’ and ‘ the whispering of the tree through craggy mountaintops’. We know that the cars can’t actually growl or the trees can’t actually whisper so it becomes clear to the reader that the author is actually trying to explain the loud noises caused by the car engines and how quiet are the areas surrounding the mountains.

The main theme or the underlying statement of this passage is to make it clear to the readers of the causes, damages and effects caused by noise pollution. The readers remain interacted throughout the passage. The author has also used rhetorical questions such as ‘it’s shocking,right?’. Use of such questions makes the reader automatically agree with the reader.

In conclusion the author has used many literary techniques such as figures of speech.

She has given several researches, quotes, examples and facts to prove her point. The point of view and perspective is made clear to the readers who easily understand its importance that is being conveyed to them.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Eeman Shahid


This text entitled ‘human noise pollution everywhere’ is written by the author Sarah Kaplan. The text is structured like an informative article thus its purpose is to inform and cater to its audience of interested teens, adults, and the elderly. The tone is consistently neutral so that the author might give a non biased response for the topic at hand. The source of this article is the Washington post. It has an expository style of writing which is similar to its purpose as a balanced argument is presented. The author uses simple , compound, and complex sentences to further the article’s creative purpose.

Firstly, the article heavily employs triples. These are seen in the examples ‘frighten, distract, or harm’ and ‘traffic overhead, car engines, children shrieking nearby’. Triples are used in this way to convey a maximum amount of information in a few lines. It seems as if the author has a lot to say, thus the author’s image in the reader’s mind becomes prestige and the audience is more inclined to believe in what the author is saying.

Personifications such as ‘whispering branches of the trees’ and ‘growling car engines’ are used to convey a sense of authenticity. Personifications, used in this way, expand the world in which this narrative is taking place in. adding human-like characteristics to inanimate objects equates them to humans thus when something bad happens to them we are more likely to be impacted in the favour of the purpose and thus take a stand. Personifications here are used in conjunction to triples thus amplifying the effect they had to appeal and affect a greater range of the intended audience.

Dialogue is also used in great affect to add weight and an additional layer of realism in the text. This is seen in the dialogue “there’s no way of holding it in” and “ we really should think about landscapes too” . dialogue here is used in conjunction with expert opinion thus adding weight to the text by sighting opinion in the favour of the author by professionals. This directly manipulates the reader into thinking that the author had people of importance backing him up thus conveying the notion that he must be correct in his assumptions. The dialogue acts to amplify this as the evidence becomes rooted in real life and appeals to the  readability of the reader.

The author also uses metaphors to achieve the same level of freshness and authenticity that using personifications got him, however this time he influenced not the audience, but the text itself by making it more lively and colourful in examples such as ‘shattering the fragile calm’ . This way the text develops a personality and the audience enjoys reading the text and does not abandon it after a first reading. It acts to transcend our own memory as phrases that stand out will be imprinted in the psyche of the reader thus making the reader also recall the content points. The vibrancy of the text makes this extract stand out against its peers.

Furthermore, the author uses facts to forward his article’s own agenda, that is to make the audience react in a positive way to the problem at hand. These are present in the examples ‘noise pollution may cover up these sounds’ and ‘to alleviate the impact of human sounds’ . along with expert opinion, these show the reader that the author is well versed, and well researched in what he is preaching. This shows that the article has some effort behind it that would be ignored if these facts were not present and just the authors own opinions were, this again furthers the purpose of the article which is to first and foremost educate the reader and inform him about the topic at hand.

The language used in this text is technical, to the point, and contains jargon. These are included in the examples ‘critical habitats’ ‘HVAC systems’ and ‘endangered species’. This use of expert language elevates the article to a higher level of understanding and personality. The use of jargon appeals to a specific section of the audience thus the text then has a greater influence on them. By doing this the author submits himself as an equal to the catered audience and by doing this the audience is directly manipulated to do the authors bidding.

In conclusion–the author uses expert opinion, facts, and statistics to act as ‘logos’ and appeal to the logical side of the audience, with this he implements figures of speech like personifications and metaphors in an attempt to add personality and colour to the text to elevate the emotional appeal of the text. Finally, the author’s prestige is cemented when he uses all of these techniques with the conjunction of elevated language and literary techniques such as triples to make the text unique in its style in forwarding its own agenda.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Haider Khan.


The title of this text is ‘Human noise pollution is everywhere, even in national parks’ which suggests that we, humans, tend to pollute everything be it the sky, oceans or land. This means that humans release toxic gases in the air and dump our waste material in the oceans or we just throw them on the roads etc. The author of this text is Sarah Kaplan, who is a well known author and the source of this text is ‘The Washington Post’. The language used in this text is informative, which grabs the reader’s attention. The theme of this text is about preserving nature. The writer talks about we humans have polluted nature and to further support her point she says, “This noise pollution doesn’t just disrupt hikers; it can also frighten, distract or harm animals that inhabit in the wilderness, setting off changes that cascade through the entire ecosystem.” The contention of this text is ‘In wintertime, the sounds of nature… snowy ground.’

The writer uses statistics such as, “But 63 percent of protected areas experienced at least a three-decibel increase in sound levels caused by noise pollution…” This provides an effect of authority as the reader believes that the writer has hold of much more information than them and due to this they readily believe the writer.

The writer quotes some experts such as, “When we think about wilderness, we think about dark skies, going to see outstanding scenery,” said Megan MeKenna, a scientist…” By quoting experts the writer gains the reader’s attention and the intended effect was to simply make the reader agree with her points.

The writer uses jargon in the text as, “buffer-zones, HVAC systems.” This catches the reader’s attention by using special words which may not be understood by some and the intended effect here is to make the text seem more appealing and interesting to read.

Moreover, the writer uses a set of triples in her text, “growling car engines, children shrieking nearby, mining…” By using triples the writer creates an effect of real-time conversation, which the readers find appealing as they feel more interested in the text. The intended effect here is to make the reader interested in the text by using a technique that is found appealing by most.

Lastly, the writer’s tone is biased but for good reason as she is trying to emphasise on the point that humans are destroying nature as we speak and this can be shown by, “These efforts aren’t just for the animals sake, the researchers say. “We have all this research about how important it is to our human health and well-being”. By having a biased tone the writer can make the reader understand and believe that preserving nature is extremely important. The intended effect here is to make the reader agree with the writer.

The commutative intended effect in the text is to make the reader believe and agree with the writer, through the use of linguistic techniques such as triples, jargon, quoting experts and using statistics.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning. By Shamel Mujtaba


This passage appears to be an extract from a magazine article, titled, “Human noise pollution is everywhere, even in the national parks”. The magazine’s name is ‘The Washington Post.’ and the article was written by Sarah Kaplan. The article appears too be intended for young adults and adults due to the fairly complicated use of vocabulary.  The writer cleverly begins with a descriptive hook, moving on to a real-life situation before listing facts and statistics.  Use of paragraphing also makes the article appear smaller so it does not burden the reader upon first glance, an effective strategy.

Quoting specialist opinions also makes the passage more acceptable and relatable.

The writer has used personifications in order to make her descriptions more spectacular. “The whistling of the wind” Is an example, and this very effectively describes just how the wind sounded. Whistling emphasizes on how gentle the wind was in the area. This has a much more profound effect on the reader than simply stating, ‘The wind blew’ or ‘was blowing gently’. The reader gets a relaxing feeling while reading the phrase thanks to the use of the personification here.

Similarly, the writer has also very skillfully used imagery to show sound. “The soft, delicate patter,” , in fact, describes the nature of the sound very effectively. The reader can imagine a ‘patter’ sound so they can relate to this. Using ‘soft’ and ‘delicate’ puts more weight on the phrase, hence making the effect of the phrase on the reader very profound.

Furthermore, Using inclusive language via a quote was an incredibly clever strategy on the writer’s part. This would ultimately result in the reader diving into the article, they would see themselves talking directly to the person the writer quotes. The phrase, “You’re almost hearing your own heartbeat.” is an example of this. The reader begins to imagine the incredibly serene environment, as they would be able to relate to how quite their heart’s beating is. Use of you here passively forces the reader to imagine themselves in the quiet surroundings so they could hear their own heartbeat. The reader is now immersed in the passage in a way they could not have been had the writer used a different strategy.

The writer’s usage of Logos, or logical appeal, makes her argument more genuine. Quoting that, ““It really doesn’t have any boundaries.” is proof of this. The reader knows that sound will only truly ‘stop’ with distance, as their logic dictates. This means that the noise can reach far and wide, making dealing with it an issue. The reader now agrees with the writer and is worried over the issue of noise pollution in a way that they were not before.

The writer has also used pathos, or emotional appeal, to make certain parts of her passage more dramatic. “It can also frighten, distract or harm animals that inhabit the wilderness, setting off changes that cascade through the entire ecosystem.” Drives the reader to think, ‘Oh no!” and immediately sympathize with the writer’s argument. Use of powerful vocabulary like ‘cascade’ further dramatize the already-dramatic line, increasing its overall effect on the reader exponentially. Since a ‘cascade’ is usually negative, the reader can imagine – and begin dreading – how severe the effects could be.

The writer also compares different forms of pollution to emphasize on how problematic measuring noise pollution is, in the form of a simile. “Unlike smog or light, sound can’t be detected from a satellite.” This direct comparison makes the issue of detecting noise pollution more severe than it already was in the reader’s eyes. Since the reader already knows the severity of the other types of pollutions, This line alone makes noise pollution overpower the other two completely in their eyes. This makes the reader think, “Then what?”, and their curiosity compels them to read on. Well played Sarah Kaplan, well played.

The writer has also stated statistical information for emphasis.”More than a fifth of protected areas experienced 10 extra decibels of human noise — a tenfold increase in the level of sound.” Is an example. This makes the passage more believable. Since the reader thinks the writer has done her research, she must be genuine, so the reader is compelled to support her argument as well.

On the whole, use of the above mentioned devices and styles not only makes the passage enjoyable, but also makes it believable and acceptable on the writers part. This is done by the professional vocabulary, statistics and quotations.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Talha Khalid.


The title of this passage is “Human noise pollution is everywhere, even in the national parks”. The author of this passage is Sarah Kaplan. The source of this passage is “The Washington Post”. The audience for this passage are adults,young adults, magazine readers.

The writer uses personification  in the line,”the whispering branches of the trees”. This was done to describe the sound of the wind which was produced after it slightly brushed with the branches of the trees. This was done to make the reader feel like he was there and to grab the reader’s attention.

The writer uses exaggeration in the line,”You’re almost hearing your own heartbeat.” This was done to tell the reader that there were no disturbances and it was a very still and calm place. The intended effect was to make the reader read on and to grab the reader’s attention.

The writer uses stats and alliteration in the line,”But 63 percent of protected areas experienced at least a three-decibel increase in sound levels caused by noise pollution”. This was done to make the reader believe in the writer’s stance. The intended effect was to grab the reader’s attention.

The writer uses expert opinions in the line “When we think about wilderness, we think about dark skies, going to see outstanding scenery,” said Megan McKenna, a scientist with the National Park Service’s Natural Sounds and Night Skies division and a co-author on the report. This was done to make the reader believe in what the writer was saying by adding a professional opinion. The intended effect was to grab the reader’s attention and to make the reader believe in the writer’s stance.