Category Archives: AO2

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Ramiz Hasham


The passage given has been entitled as ‘getting lost’. The structure of this passage is in the form of a narrative, where the writer is recalling events they have experienced. We may also conclude that this extract has been taken from a journal or a weekly blog, where the writer writes about events that have transpired within their life. The purpose of this passage is to share an experience or moment in the writer’s life so as to amuse or enlighten others. The language used by the author in this text is highly descriptive and illustrative, where the writer describes his experience by painting a vivid picture. This text is directed more so towards travelers who may relate to such an experience, but it is important to know that the text may be interpreted and enjoyed by a wide variety of audiences as the writer’s language make it easily accessible. The writer has used a varying tone throughout, wherein the beginning of the tone is quite straightforward and informative. But as the text progresses the writer adds a subtle sub tone of humor. The writer has used a plethora of varying linguistic techniques in order to appeal this passage more towards travelers so that they can relate to such an experience but has also not used complex terminology that only travelers would understand, this allows even more people to be amused and informed by reading this text. 

Onto the main body of the passage, we can see that this text possesses various stylistic techniques in order to attract any reader towards the text and to keep their interest as they read it. One major stylistic effect the writer has used is the use of imagery in order to create vivid descriptions for the reader. “At this point in the story should mention that it was raining and that I also had an injured foot. You can now picture me limping around a completely foreign city in the pouring rain.” The quotation above proves the point about the writers use of imagery, as in this specific example we can see how the writer creates a lucid image of the situation he was in. This allows the reader to better relate to such an event and therefore prolongs the reader’s interest in the piece of writing. 

Proceeding with other examples of the writers use of stylistic devices, we can see that the writer has also used a small but feasible amount of personification in the text. Point in case, “I quickly (my battery was close to dying) downloaded the subway app for Daejeon and found the stop closest to the bus terminal.” The use of personification allows the reader to connect with that specific experience of the author. In this case, by calling his phone dead he explains the extent of the crisis he was in. It allows the reader to better understand the text. 

The writer has also used a mix of linguistic devices and effects. A major effect is the use of colloquial language. This is evident in the following quotation, “When you allow yourself to ‘go with the flow’ as some people say,” The use of colloquial language allows the writer to stay true to his tone as he now enforces a more relaxed version of his events, this allows the reader to read the passage without feeling the need to focus on each and every work and analyzing it as some would do in a formal passage. 

All in all, the writer has used a varying degree of linguistic and stylistic devices in order to achieve his main goal of trying to relate his experience towards other travelers that can relate to his experience . The write has used a varying tone which has created many different effects on the readers themselves.

Q) Explain how Karin Swanson presents her ideas and opinions about being a sports fan. By Syed Ali Hasan Rizvi


This passage ‘I am a Sports Fan’ is adapted from an article by Karin Swanson. The theme of the passage is ‘sports’. The purpose of the passage is to inform the reader about the connection of the writer with sports or if looked from another perspective, to inform to reader that females can also enjoy sports or invest their time in it.The language used in this passage is colloquial, engaging, casual, inclusive, and simple with the use of compound words. The tone of the passage is opinionated. The audience consists of young adults, adults, sports enthusiasts/people who read sports articles in their free time.

The passage is written in a first-person perspective which immediately puts the reader inside the narrator’s head, which allows for an intimate portrayal of thoughts and emotions. The extent of casual/informal language used can be highlighted as the writer has used colloquial language in the passage such as ‘hang out with the guys’ and ‘underdogs’. This creates a conversational tone between the reader and the writer hence, giving a relaxing effect. Rich vocabulary such as ‘perpetuate’, ‘stereotypes’, and ‘intensely scrutinizes’ is also used, through this the writer is able to express herself with even bigger depths.

Then, in ending of the introduction the use of parenthesis can also be seen; ‘(least of all college basketball)’, providing the reader with supplementary information. The utilization of Em dashes/long dashes in the second paragraph: ‘In my experience it’s a fine line – guys typically find it attractive that a girl likes sport,…’ and ‘But, there are many different sorts of fans – some people just care about a particular team…’ adds emphasis and the writer’s experience is shared easily and manifestly with the reader.

Furthermore, Karin Swanson has also given references side by side, such as ‘the football World Cup’, ‘Olympics’, ‘East Coast of America’, and ‘UCLA basketball game.’ This persuades the reader and makes the writer’s ideas and opinions more clear.

The writer has used multiple figures of speech in the passage to heighten effect and to convey her ideas and opinions. Starting off with Metaphor. To wit, ‘putting blind faith in a group of people you will probably never meet’, ‘team hit the court’, ‘solid five years’, and ‘stampeded’. Through this the writer basically adds spice and a layer of richness to her writing, and conveys vivid imagery to the reader in order to transcend literal meanings.

Secondly, the writer has used Alliteration, shown by, ‘sacrificed sleep’ and ‘through thick and thin’. This adds emphasis and reinforces meaning.

The writer has used exaggeration in her passage. Point the case, ‘sacrificed sleep’ and ‘stuck with them through thick and thin’. This makes it easier for the reader to understand what the writer is trying to share or persuade by dramatically reinforcing the point.

Next, the writer has given statistics in the second last paragraph (line number 40) which is ‘Peruvians at 12,000 feet along the Inca trail’. Through the evidence provided by Karin Swanson, her statement is supported and the reader is positioned and persuaded easily. 

Finally, the writer has used repetition in the conclusion of the passage; ‘regardless of gender or class or ideology or age.’ The repetition of ‘or’ creates rhythm and the reader finds it more interesting. Through the use of repetition in the ending of the passage, emphasis and prominence is given to the conclusion of the passage.

Winding up, the writer has used a variety of techniques such as humour, exaggeration, anecdote, phrasal verbs, idiomatic phrases, along with inclusive and colloquial language. The ‘cherry on top’ being the linguistic elements, simple vocabulary, and figures of speech such as Metaphor and Alliteration. It would be correct to say that the writer, Karin Swanson was successful to engage the reader and also perpetuate the audience’s interest.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Shayaan Khan


The title of this passage is Getting Lost, which is a straightforward title, telling you about what will happen in this extract. It is written by Matt Inman and is a straight page taken out from his books. The purpose of this text is to show people that if you felt like you lost and have no ways to go, you still go with a smile on your face because if you do, it may take you to the destination you want to see. It tells you to never give up and keep on fighting for the thing you longed for.

The writer uses informal language, this is more friendly and feels natural for the reader, as he knows that this is not that much of a serious story. This extract is meant to be for adults mainly as children cannot travel without their parents or guardian. Adults can get lost easily without knowing about any of the areas, and this passage tells them that they must not put on an angry face even if they think they have lost.

The tone of this passage is informal and chaotic, the reader explains his journey in a quick way without wasting any time. This can be called chaotic as his writing sometimes gets messy but that is the gist of the story and makes it work even more, this way the reader can engage in the story more and feels more relaxed then needing to spot every single detail. The main theme of this extract is ‘Survive with a smile’, this means that you must work hard towards your goal even if you have no knowledge of getting to it, it makes you strive for it and try to get there as soon as possible. By this, it makes the goal a more worthy destination and gives you more satisfaction.

The writer tends to go for the more straightforward passage, like “In the middle of nowhere and essentially unable to communicate with anyone.”, this shows that he does not want to waste time in telling every single detail and makes the text more interesting for the reader, giving him a feeling of satisfaction. Plus, with this, it allows him to send the message without over-complicating it and gets the message straight to the readers head. He also shows the message one more time in a separate subtitle passage to make sure that people did not get confused by the story and that they were not only reading for fun. He shows this as a nightmare in his first subtitle’s paragraph but in the second subtitle, he makes sure that people do not think of this as some pity train but as a story about a man striving to reach his goal as soon as possible.

The writer also tends to ask more rhetorical questions, as shown, “Where would have been the fun in that?” This is used to make the reader more into the story and made him think about the passage way more often. A rhetorical question sticks the question to the reader’s mind and makes him think about the passage a lot.

 The writer also likes to use alliteration as it is shown in the extract, “…fact…frustrated…”. This gives a more rhythmic flow to the story and makes it smoother. By doing this, it allows the reader to be focused on a particular part of the text and makes him more absorbed in the passage. Not only this, but this can also make him enjoy some parts of the text and makes him want to read it again and again just to get to that specific part to catch the same feeling he felt while reading it for the first time.

The writer also uses the exclamation marks, such as “‘go with the flow’” this is used to  create a sense of sarcasm and gives the reader a more comfortable feeling with the passage and allows him to read the passage more comfortably and not be too disturbed by it. 

The writer uses first person to give it more personal feeling as he uses,”I…I”, this is to make the reader in the exact same shows as the writer and feel the same emotions as him and not make him feel like it is a straightforward story.

The writer uses more straightforward sentences and tells it in such a way that the reader feels comfortable and is more invested in the story.

Q) How has the author used style and language to convey meaning? By Alisher Janassayev


The passage written by Matt Inman named getting lost is about how foreign tourist is getting lost in totally different environment for him. He was traveling to Korea, Boesong Green Tea Fields. This trip to Korea will forever remain in his head. 

The form of this passage is a story. Matt Inman, is a story about how a tourist got lost in an absolutely hopeless situation. Writer has given a hyperbole in the lines 3-4. “I thank the universe for smartphones”. It create a larger-than-life effect and overly stress a specific point. In his situation, the smartphone became his main savior. 

On the bus stop, he couldn’t relax and focus on his book. This certain feeling of insecurity was present in the author. He started his nervousness from the fact that he had never overcome such a path to the fact that was he sitting at the right bus stop. 

Passage discovered the theme of getting lost, unknown city and language barrier. the language barrier played a major role when he tried to ask the driver about rightness of his path. The audience of a passage is: travelers, future tourist of Korea and thrill fans. 

Author has given absolute hopelessness. He added about his injured leg and outside rain. A terrible picture emerges as a tourist in an unknown city for him got lost with a wounded leg and in the rain. He took out his half-dead phone and started downloading the Subway map. This is how he got to his right path. 

Writer has given an irony, “ All is these thing can be extremely frustrating, as I walked down those unknown streets with a limp and raining on my face, I couldn’t help but smile”. In such a difficult situation, not everyone can smile. We see that the author has come to terms with the situation, with a smile on his face he went to look for a way out of this problem. 

In final analysis, the author never regrets this trip, although he still did not reach his destination. The author justifies this by the fact that without all this, without a broken leg and without rain, his story would be boring and only about Korea. Perhaps with this he showed Korea from the other side.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Anna Khattak 


This is a passage taken from the Washington post and is titled “some birds are so stressed by noise pollution it looks like they have PYSD.” 

The structure is that of an article ,the genre is nonfiction.The language of the passage is simple yet engaging and the audience can range from young adults to adults. The tone of the passage is semi formal while the purpose is to inform the reader. 

The author has used quite a bit of pathos throughout the passage,we can see this in the lines “the bluebird didn’t realise what she was getting herself into”, “her stress hormone levels become skewed”, etc. 

These have an intended effect of invoking a sense of pity for the bird, in the audience. 

Another literary technique used by the author is the use of triples, “noise pollution ,abnormal levels of stress hormones and lower survival rates”, this has an intended effect of engaging the readers, making the passage more interesting and overall making the passage flow easily. 

Throughout the text we also see a lot of quotes from medical experts and experts on the topic, for example “noise is causing birds to be… offsprings”, “There’s evidence that being able to have a full auditory experience is essential for optimal health in both species” etc. This makes the passage seem more well researched ,professional and believable. 

The author has also used Jargon sporadically throughout the passage, for example “cardiovascular problems”, “ constant arousal and hyper vigilance” etc This has an intended effect of again making the passage more professional and well researched and also helps engage the reader more. 

The writer has used short dramatic sentences abundantly in the passage, we can see these in the lines “But this was an acoustic degradation of the environment” , “it gets really tricky” these have an intended effect of making the passage more dramatic and interesting to read.

The author has also used references in the passage for example , “Goldilocks distance” This makes the passage more interesting for the reader. 

With the use of these stylistic and linguistic devices the author has been able to deliver his point quite clearly to the audience, while simultaneously engaging them in the passage.

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Maryam Sheikh


“Getting lost” the title of the text is rather simple and needs no deep explanation. The story is recent and takes place in Korea. The writer planned to take a trip the the green tea fields in Boseong. The author begins his journey by getting on a train to the green tea fields and, as he does that he explains that his whole intention was to get lost or have a mini adventure.the writer seems quite adventurous and daring, daring enough to get lost in a foreign country. As he began his train ride he decided to read a book. As he reached a change over confusion struck him, he tried asking the driver for help but due to the language barrier he couldn’t help. He got off and looked up where he had to go on his phone. The writer had previously mentioned that he thanked the universe for smart phones cause without them we’d be lost. Well here he was lost alone in a foreign country. He managed to find out that he was supposed to go. The language is quite simple in the text and quite easy to understand. The text is written in medium sized paragraphs and small paragraphs. The theme is quite interesting as it is about challenges and how to overcome them and how to be positive. In the end this trip was worth it for him. 

Q)How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Mujtaba Asim


This text is an extract from the story called “Getting Lost” written by Matt Inman, in this story the author has narrated and described his journey to Boseong, city of Korea and how he got lost between his dreadful journey heading there. The writer has used figurative language as well as many other vocabulary effects to enhance the meaning of his paragraph, to attract more readers and help them understand the passage more deeply.

Notice that the structure of the passage is narrative so the writer varies his way of speaking and has changed it from informal to sometimes formal, changing the passage from formal to informal, and from informal to formal in the middle of text creates a dramatic effect. Through the structure, which is narrative, the author is able to fully develop the plot, the characters and their actions, and lead us to the lesson of the story and help us in understanding it.

The tone of the writer, also known as the writer’s attitude is really sceptical and optimistic, “I hopped on the bus and tried to relax with a book, focusing on the book was difficult as I had never done this journey before”. You can see here that this is the writer’s first time travelling to Boseong and he really didn’t what was for him ahead; he is sceptical because this place is new to him and he doesn’t even speak the language spoken there, that makes the journey really difficult for him yet he remains calm and remains optimistic even when he got injured. The writer being sceptical and optimistic engages the reader in reader the complete story to see if the author was lucky enough to witness what he thought about, to see if the future is really bright.

This extract mainly attracts people who are tourists or travellers, or other people who are new to a country so the audience includes travellers and mainly young-adults and adults since the extract is a travel log and has a jolly pace, these people find this story really interesting and attracting because the passage itself is about travelling to new places and your experience there, so if any one of these readers think of going to Boseong or any other place, this extract can be of use to them.

The author has also used rhetorical questions in his passage, “Where would have been the fun in that?”. This is a figure of speech which the writer has used to add emphasis on his lesson, he thinks that if there were no difficulties during the journey, it would’ve been boring. Using rhetorical question in the passage persuades and influences the audience, it is mainly used to emphasize a point and force the reader into thinking about the passage more.

Notice that the writer also has used personification in the end of his passage, “The roads will take you.”. This is another example of a figure of speech and using personification can help readers understand or react emotionally to non-human characters. It creates a relation between the audience and the non-human characters which are included in the passage.

In the conclusion, the passage is a mix of greatly used vocabulary to emphasize and deeply help the audience understand the meaning of the passage, to help the reader understand the lesson of the story and what is its true meaning. The writer has successfully explained his story with using different figurative language and using different tones and structures which has attracted many readers and made the story worthy of being read. 

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Zaaria Fahd


In this text, the writer Matt Inman talks about his experience of getting lost in Korea. He focuses on the idea that ‘its silly to get upset when things take a different course than you wanted.” Throughout this text there is a genuine and optimistic theme that almost suddenly puts the reader in a spontaneous or adventurous mood and with a particularly positive outlook on life.

 The writer has written this text in a first person narrative. His writing style as shown is very casual as if he is telling a story of his to a friend. You can see he is trying to include a smart amount of suspense for the reader. This can be seen from his efforts of including details such as him being lost in Korea with not being very good at speaking Korean. Although it seems that in way the writer is trying to convey a message to the reader. This is that we should make the most of bad times.

This brings me to my next argument which is his constant reminder to the reader that they should never feel bad when they are in a crisis and that positive thinking is the right thing to do. He talks about how if you are already in a tough situation, negative thinking will not help whereas positive thinking can lighten your mood and give you some hope. This is a constant theme throughout for example when the writer says, “All of these things can be extremely frustrating but as I walked down those unknown streets with a limp, and rain falling on my face, I couldn’t help but smile.”

My last argument is that the writer talks about experiencing the best life you can overall. His spontaneous and cheerful attitude shows the reader that they should live life to the fullest and never look back. This attitude Could change someones entire outlook on their life and give them a brand new perspective. 

Overall, in my opinion this text is a great inspiration to those who are held back due to the fear of not being able to fully live their life. It shows that something as different as getting lost in Korea can be turned into a whole new situation of adventure, experience and enjoyment. 

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Ghazan Ali.


This text “Getting Lost” is a story written by Matt Inman. The genre of the text this time is non-fiction and it contains themes of being oblivious and about how you should learn from your mistakes instead of sulking around about them. The text is written in first person and uses tons of descriptive words, as it’s written in a descriptive style. The purpose of it is to inform people about travelling, and to tell the audience about his mistakes so that people do not repeat them. I think the audience would consist of the age range of children to young adults and aspiring travelers, as they would more likely relate to this because they do not have experience in travelling. 

The writer of this extract uses many linguistic devices in the text, one of many being figures of speech. He uses metaphors such as “concrete idea” or “go with the flow”. The effect this has is that it creates a very vivid and clear image for the audience’s mind. He also uses alliterations such as “towards the terminal”, the effect this has is by using patterns it is easier for the human brain to remember certain things, so the author uses this device to cement an idea into the reader’s brain and it helps accentuate his point to a huge extent. 

Secondly, the language used in this extract is not too heavy and is rather simplistic and easy to understand. He uses words and phrases such as, “Nothing unexpectedly awesome happened” and “My Korean is virtually non-existent”. These phrases in my opinion have an informal look about them, so it is more relatable for the intended audience and it will pique their interest. The use of simple language also gives the passage a relaxed feeling about it and it can eradicate peoples boredom as they read it casually.

Next, the author also makes use of the device of imagery in a very good manner. He describes his surroundings in the essay, for example when he says “It was raining and I had an injured foot” or “I walked down those unknown streets with a limp and rain falling on my face”. Again this creates a painting for the audience and they can almost see through the readers eyes themselves. It makes them feel as if they are there and it is a great way to keep them interested in the extract, otherwise the essay would just be long and tiring to read.

A recurring facet in this passage is, the author easily getting lost which I am sure you can easily tell through the title of the passage. He says things like, “ limping around a completely foreign city” and “ I kept wandering the streets”. Now what I think the author has kept on repeating this for is because if this were just a story about him going to his destined location it would be dry. So, he mentions the hardships that he went through to get there, this can also be a good way to gain the sympathy of the readers and it will also keep them attentive. Other than these two factors it is also a lesson for people who want to travel or do like to travel.

Other than that, the writer subtly uses indirect involvement. He uses it through the linguistic device of a rhetorical question. He says in his passage, “ If I had just gone straight to Boseong with no issues on the way. Where would have been the fun in that?”. The use of a rhetorical question is that it makes the readers feel involved so the writer now has their attention and they are engrossed in the passage. After further involving the audience the author will force them to think what they would do if they were in that situation. 

In conclusion, with the smart use of many linguistic devices which are peppered throughout the passage, it helps keep the extract interesting and elevates the writer’s work to another level.