Daily Archives: October 17, 2021

Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Ramiz Hasham


The passage given has been entitled as ‘getting lost’. The structure of this passage is in the form of a narrative, where the writer is recalling events they have experienced. We may also conclude that this extract has been taken from a journal or a weekly blog, where the writer writes about events that have transpired within their life. The purpose of this passage is to share an experience or moment in the writer’s life so as to amuse or enlighten others. The language used by the author in this text is highly descriptive and illustrative, where the writer describes his experience by painting a vivid picture. This text is directed more so towards travelers who may relate to such an experience, but it is important to know that the text may be interpreted and enjoyed by a wide variety of audiences as the writer’s language make it easily accessible. The writer has used a varying tone throughout, wherein the beginning of the tone is quite straightforward and informative. But as the text progresses the writer adds a subtle sub tone of humor. The writer has used a plethora of varying linguistic techniques in order to appeal this passage more towards travelers so that they can relate to such an experience but has also not used complex terminology that only travelers would understand, this allows even more people to be amused and informed by reading this text. 

Onto the main body of the passage, we can see that this text possesses various stylistic techniques in order to attract any reader towards the text and to keep their interest as they read it. One major stylistic effect the writer has used is the use of imagery in order to create vivid descriptions for the reader. “At this point in the story should mention that it was raining and that I also had an injured foot. You can now picture me limping around a completely foreign city in the pouring rain.” The quotation above proves the point about the writers use of imagery, as in this specific example we can see how the writer creates a lucid image of the situation he was in. This allows the reader to better relate to such an event and therefore prolongs the reader’s interest in the piece of writing. 

Proceeding with other examples of the writers use of stylistic devices, we can see that the writer has also used a small but feasible amount of personification in the text. Point in case, “I quickly (my battery was close to dying) downloaded the subway app for Daejeon and found the stop closest to the bus terminal.” The use of personification allows the reader to connect with that specific experience of the author. In this case, by calling his phone dead he explains the extent of the crisis he was in. It allows the reader to better understand the text. 

The writer has also used a mix of linguistic devices and effects. A major effect is the use of colloquial language. This is evident in the following quotation, “When you allow yourself to ‘go with the flow’ as some people say,” The use of colloquial language allows the writer to stay true to his tone as he now enforces a more relaxed version of his events, this allows the reader to read the passage without feeling the need to focus on each and every work and analyzing it as some would do in a formal passage. 

All in all, the writer has used a varying degree of linguistic and stylistic devices in order to achieve his main goal of trying to relate his experience towards other travelers that can relate to his experience . The write has used a varying tone which has created many different effects on the readers themselves.

Q) Explain how Karin Swanson presents her ideas and opinions about being a sports fan. By Syed Ali Hasan Rizvi


This passage ‘I am a Sports Fan’ is adapted from an article by Karin Swanson. The theme of the passage is ‘sports’. The purpose of the passage is to inform the reader about the connection of the writer with sports or if looked from another perspective, to inform to reader that females can also enjoy sports or invest their time in it.The language used in this passage is colloquial, engaging, casual, inclusive, and simple with the use of compound words. The tone of the passage is opinionated. The audience consists of young adults, adults, sports enthusiasts/people who read sports articles in their free time.

The passage is written in a first-person perspective which immediately puts the reader inside the narrator’s head, which allows for an intimate portrayal of thoughts and emotions. The extent of casual/informal language used can be highlighted as the writer has used colloquial language in the passage such as ‘hang out with the guys’ and ‘underdogs’. This creates a conversational tone between the reader and the writer hence, giving a relaxing effect. Rich vocabulary such as ‘perpetuate’, ‘stereotypes’, and ‘intensely scrutinizes’ is also used, through this the writer is able to express herself with even bigger depths.

Then, in ending of the introduction the use of parenthesis can also be seen; ‘(least of all college basketball)’, providing the reader with supplementary information. The utilization of Em dashes/long dashes in the second paragraph: ‘In my experience it’s a fine line – guys typically find it attractive that a girl likes sport,…’ and ‘But, there are many different sorts of fans – some people just care about a particular team…’ adds emphasis and the writer’s experience is shared easily and manifestly with the reader.

Furthermore, Karin Swanson has also given references side by side, such as ‘the football World Cup’, ‘Olympics’, ‘East Coast of America’, and ‘UCLA basketball game.’ This persuades the reader and makes the writer’s ideas and opinions more clear.

The writer has used multiple figures of speech in the passage to heighten effect and to convey her ideas and opinions. Starting off with Metaphor. To wit, ‘putting blind faith in a group of people you will probably never meet’, ‘team hit the court’, ‘solid five years’, and ‘stampeded’. Through this the writer basically adds spice and a layer of richness to her writing, and conveys vivid imagery to the reader in order to transcend literal meanings.

Secondly, the writer has used Alliteration, shown by, ‘sacrificed sleep’ and ‘through thick and thin’. This adds emphasis and reinforces meaning.

The writer has used exaggeration in her passage. Point the case, ‘sacrificed sleep’ and ‘stuck with them through thick and thin’. This makes it easier for the reader to understand what the writer is trying to share or persuade by dramatically reinforcing the point.

Next, the writer has given statistics in the second last paragraph (line number 40) which is ‘Peruvians at 12,000 feet along the Inca trail’. Through the evidence provided by Karin Swanson, her statement is supported and the reader is positioned and persuaded easily. 

Finally, the writer has used repetition in the conclusion of the passage; ‘regardless of gender or class or ideology or age.’ The repetition of ‘or’ creates rhythm and the reader finds it more interesting. Through the use of repetition in the ending of the passage, emphasis and prominence is given to the conclusion of the passage.

Winding up, the writer has used a variety of techniques such as humour, exaggeration, anecdote, phrasal verbs, idiomatic phrases, along with inclusive and colloquial language. The ‘cherry on top’ being the linguistic elements, simple vocabulary, and figures of speech such as Metaphor and Alliteration. It would be correct to say that the writer, Karin Swanson was successful to engage the reader and also perpetuate the audience’s interest.

Q) ‘We rely on modern technology too much’. Discuss. By Ali Ul Qudur


Nowadays in this fast-moving world, it is hardly impossible to manage time and follow the timetable, teach or learn effectively, and also being there for someone on time. The solution to all this fuss, our reliance on modern technology. Since times have changed, responsibilities and time tables have also drastically changed for those who have other fish to fry. The questions that arise are: Should we really rely on modern technology? Is modern technology the new normal or should we consider the old lifestyle of getting things done? Does it have harmful effects on our society and the new generation? All these questions will be discussed in the following passage.

Supporters of the topic believe that we should rely on technology such as autopilot in modern vehicles. They believe so because it has improved for the better and so that drivers can easily interact with the passengers(mostly children) or complete a task to save time. Elon Musk, owner of Tesla confidently states, “Autopilot uses cameras, ultrasonic sensors and radar to see and sense the environment around the car.” He further states that without this, “a driver alone would not otherwise have” the awareness. Similarly, an avid user of the same technology also states, “I’ve been using this technology since the day I purchased my first self-driving vehicle and it has saved a lot of my time. I usually do my breakfast and go through the news while it drives through the highway.”

However, people against the topic argue that we should not toy around with this technology especially in crowded areas as it could damage public property or result in fatality. James Smith, a senior traffic warden, said, “In the past 2 years there has been an increase in self-driving vehicles and traffic violations. I’ve noticed that most vehicles with the self-driving feature have jumped traffic signals and stop signs. The technology still has room for improvement but drivers should not rely on it completely.” Similarly, Alexandra Clark, an ordinary citizen stated, “We should not rely on modern technology like this until it is foolproof and smart enough of its surroundings. I am devastated at the loss of my only nephew. An owner used the summon feature of his vehicle which rammed the car into the fence and over the child.”

At the same time, advocates of the topic maintain that the world-wide-web had 4.57 billion active users as of July 2020. The use of the internet has also improved our means of communication and has boosted online purchasing and trade. A mother of two and a wife, Sarah Peck, states, “I don’t have a lot of time to go to the supermarket so I purchase whatever I want online. Yes, it is comparatively expensive but it saves a lot of time and I utilize it with my family.” Likewise, the Globe Magazine stated, “Stay indoors during this uncertain time. The internet has always been there for us. It’ll be there when you need to purchase pharmaceutical drugs, it’ll be there when you’re craving for dessert, it’ll be there for your groceries. But most importantly, it’ll be there when you want to connect with your loved one.”

In retrospect, opponents of the topic maintain that we shouldn’t rely on online shopping apps/websites as those users are susceptible to hackers. They believe that dealers online do not believe in the term ‘What you see is what you get’. A parent stated, “My son’s confidence level has decreased because of the advancements in technology. He purchases whatever he wants and relies on online stores even after being scammed numerous times and this has resulted in him being a socially awkward and shy teenager who doesn’t have the confidence to walk inside a store.” Similarly, a once avid online purchasing family stated, “We used to save our credit card information on many online stores. Most of them were renowned brands too. Some dealers used to deliver counterfeit products while others, expired. Some used to have hidden charges and used to charge us extra. Since then, we have realized that we rely on modern technology too much.”

In retrospect, opponents of the topic maintain that modern technology like virtual reality and simulations on simulators is not only a very cost-effective way of teaching and learning but also a great source of entertainment. Prof. Brain May of Oaks University stated, “This is the best method of teaching my enthusiastic learners. The diagrams are three-dimensional which encourages the students to study harder as their concepts are crystal clear. It provides outstanding visualizations that aren’t possible in the traditional classroom.” Similarly, parents of two,12 and 9, stated, “We usually explain our children the subject or topic through Virtual reality and simulations. This develops their interest and find it a fun and effective way of learning.” They further added, “On the weekends, they happily watch a three-dimensional documentary.”

On the contrary, challengers of the topic claim that there is a huge difference between the two teaching methods, and that physical models should be used. A parent of a high school student claims that her daughter should actually see body diagrams and should conduct chemistry practicals rather than ‘seeing’ them. She believes that we shouldn’t rely on VR headsets as they are incomplete and lack reactions, unlike teachers. Similarly, The University of Relations mentioned in their recent research that traditional education is based on personal human communication while virtual reality is quite different; it is you and the software, and nothing else. This can damage the relationships between students and the overall human communication. Which is why we shouldn’t rely on virtual reality.

All in all, every coin has two sides; one positive and one useless/negative. The same is the case with modern technology. But in my opinion, we should be optimistic – not pessimistic – about it, enjoy the benefits that it has brought to us and rely on it if and only if it is safe for us and the society we live in. If it is used appropriately and within the boundaries, relying on it would contribute to the development of society.