Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Eeman Shahid


This text entitled ‘human noise pollution everywhere’ is written by the author Sarah Kaplan. The text is structured like an informative article thus its purpose is to inform and cater to its audience of interested teens, adults, and the elderly. The tone is consistently neutral so that the author might give a non biased response for the topic at hand. The source of this article is the Washington post. It has an expository style of writing which is similar to its purpose as a balanced argument is presented. The author uses simple , compound, and complex sentences to further the article’s creative purpose.

Firstly, the article heavily employs triples. These are seen in the examples ‘frighten, distract, or harm’ and ‘traffic overhead, car engines, children shrieking nearby’. Triples are used in this way to convey a maximum amount of information in a few lines. It seems as if the author has a lot to say, thus the author’s image in the reader’s mind becomes prestige and the audience is more inclined to believe in what the author is saying.

Personifications such as ‘whispering branches of the trees’ and ‘growling car engines’ are used to convey a sense of authenticity. Personifications, used in this way, expand the world in which this narrative is taking place in. adding human-like characteristics to inanimate objects equates them to humans thus when something bad happens to them we are more likely to be impacted in the favour of the purpose and thus take a stand. Personifications here are used in conjunction to triples thus amplifying the effect they had to appeal and affect a greater range of the intended audience.

Dialogue is also used in great affect to add weight and an additional layer of realism in the text. This is seen in the dialogue “there’s no way of holding it in” and “ we really should think about landscapes too” . dialogue here is used in conjunction with expert opinion thus adding weight to the text by sighting opinion in the favour of the author by professionals. This directly manipulates the reader into thinking that the author had people of importance backing him up thus conveying the notion that he must be correct in his assumptions. The dialogue acts to amplify this as the evidence becomes rooted in real life and appeals to the  readability of the reader.

The author also uses metaphors to achieve the same level of freshness and authenticity that using personifications got him, however this time he influenced not the audience, but the text itself by making it more lively and colourful in examples such as ‘shattering the fragile calm’ . This way the text develops a personality and the audience enjoys reading the text and does not abandon it after a first reading. It acts to transcend our own memory as phrases that stand out will be imprinted in the psyche of the reader thus making the reader also recall the content points. The vibrancy of the text makes this extract stand out against its peers.

Furthermore, the author uses facts to forward his article’s own agenda, that is to make the audience react in a positive way to the problem at hand. These are present in the examples ‘noise pollution may cover up these sounds’ and ‘to alleviate the impact of human sounds’ . along with expert opinion, these show the reader that the author is well versed, and well researched in what he is preaching. This shows that the article has some effort behind it that would be ignored if these facts were not present and just the authors own opinions were, this again furthers the purpose of the article which is to first and foremost educate the reader and inform him about the topic at hand.

The language used in this text is technical, to the point, and contains jargon. These are included in the examples ‘critical habitats’ ‘HVAC systems’ and ‘endangered species’. This use of expert language elevates the article to a higher level of understanding and personality. The use of jargon appeals to a specific section of the audience thus the text then has a greater influence on them. By doing this the author submits himself as an equal to the catered audience and by doing this the audience is directly manipulated to do the authors bidding.

In conclusion–the author uses expert opinion, facts, and statistics to act as ‘logos’ and appeal to the logical side of the audience, with this he implements figures of speech like personifications and metaphors in an attempt to add personality and colour to the text to elevate the emotional appeal of the text. Finally, the author’s prestige is cemented when he uses all of these techniques with the conjunction of elevated language and literary techniques such as triples to make the text unique in its style in forwarding its own agenda.

About froebelianwriters

I am an English Language teacher teaching O'Levels Edexcel and CIE A Levels at Froebel's International School, Islamabad. I am also working as a Subject Specialist Literacy consultant for the same school. Writing and reading has always been a passion and I try my utmost to instill these habits and hobbies in my students as well. I can be reached/contacted at fabbas227@hotmail.com or 03365287335 Happy reading!

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