Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meanings. By Fasih-ul-Hassan Taqvih


This extract is titled “lost in the wilderness- these tips can save your life” by Mark Jenkins. This is likely to be non-fictional, considering the fact that its structure resembles that of a blog or article. Purpose wise the author aims to inform the reader about how to combat wilderness in extreme circumstances.The language is mostly semi-formal and factual as well as it advises the reader constantly. The audience are amongst those young adults or teenagers who are interested in exploring the wilderness and how to survive in it. The tone is warm and inviting but also apprehensive and cautious. It is a mostly second-person perspective.

The most commonly utilized rhetorical device throughout the excerpt is inclusive language. Instances such as “ask yourself basic questions”, “unless you get lost”. Inclusive language has been developed so that a bond can be built between viewer and author. Otherwise, inclusive language makes the reader feel more involved which enables the author to maintain the focus of their respected audience. He can fulfill his purpose of informing them with survival tips successfully.

Otherwise, the excerpt corporates literary devices like triples. Triples welcome them self in instances like ,“food, water, pocket-knife” and “raincoat, extra clothes, matches and lighter”. Triples provide the extract with a sense of authenticity and sway the reader to agree with the author’s perspective. Triples also make the article seem authoritative, as the writer appears to be quite knowledgeable and have a great understanding of wilderness. Triples hook the reader as well, for the tips rouse their curiosity and persuade them to read more. 

Moving forward, the extract installs statistics in the immediate paragraphs when it states, “in the mountains not 30 miles from my home”. This allows the audience to envision and visualize the writer’s previous travel experiences. Other instances of statistics such as, “thousands of hikers get lost every year”. This induces a profound effect from the viewers, evoking their pathos and ethos, as they feel sympathetic for the lost wayfarers. 

On the other hand, the extract incorporates sub-texts and headings. For example, “T stands for think”, “S is to simply stop”. This makes it easier for the writer to fulfill his purpose of equipping the audience through life-saving tips, by informing them. Sub-texts make it easier for the viewers to scan through the information presented before them, maintaining their interest as they are influenced to read more. Sub-texts coerce the reader into using their logos, as they try to visualize how they will employ these tactics in real life. Particularly in the wild.

Moving forward, the extract employs punctuation for effect, like parenthesis on various occasions. This is true through instances like, “anxiety- symptoms of lightheadedness”, “panicky- the average lost person”. This creates a sense of drama and heightens the suspense and tension in the extract. The writer is able to keep his readers interested and conveniently fulfill his intended purpose, by providing them with survival tips. The last entry of parentheses, “- you die from bad decisions”, increases the already existing sense of suspense, maintaining the reader’s 

On the contrary, the extract welcomes literary devices like alliteration. Alliteration appears at instances like, “frantically moving faster”. Alliteration creates a sense of rhythm and rhyme, which makes it easier for the audience to grasp the knowledge presented before them. Once again, the viewers are hooked and want to read more. 

Otherwise, the excerpt utilizes Anaphora. “What is the weather doing? What is the weather forecast?”. Anaphora makes the extract more interesting and enjoyable to view for the reader. It evokes the reader’s logos as they are presented with a question and are forced to answer it. It draws in the reader’s participation and they try to anticipate what’s coming next. By keeping the reader anticipated, the writer is able to fulfill his intended purpose of writing. 

Hence through utilizing rhetorical and literary devices, the writer has a deep effect on the audience, maintains their interest and fulfills their purpose of writing.

About froebelianwriters

I am an English Language teacher teaching O'Levels Edexcel and CIE A Levels at Froebel's International School, Islamabad. I am also working as a Subject Specialist Literacy consultant for the same school. Writing and reading has always been a passion and I try my utmost to instill these habits and hobbies in my students as well. I can be reached/contacted at fabbas227@hotmail.com or 03365287335 Happy reading!

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