Q) How has the writer of the text used style and language to convey meaning? By Amal Adil


The passage “Some birds are so stressed by noise pollution it looks like they have PTSD” has been taken from a newspaper article called “The Washington Post”. The purpose of the passage is to inform the reader. A professional style of language is used and a mixture of simple, compound and complex sentences have been used. The passage is mainly intended for adults or young adults who are interested in these types of topics and want to learn more about them. It could also be intended for people who are currently studying about science or biology. The tone of the passage is quite formal as the passage is intended to inform, not to entertain the reader. 

The author has used quotations in the passage for example, ‘“Noise is causing birds to be in a situation where they are chronically stressed”’, ‘“We think it is a real conversation concern”’, ‘“It gets really tricky”’. By adding quotations in the passage, the author has added more evidence, therefore making the passage more believable. The reader believes the author’s words and as the passage is to inform the reader, the reader finds it easier to believe that the information given by the reader is not fake. 

The author has also given a lot of facts in the passage like “that would result in a state of chronic fatigue”, “But this is an acoustic degradation of the environment”. By using facts the author has added more weight and evidence to the passage. This shows how important it is to add evidence and proof to the topic in an informative passage as the writer has to make the reader believe the facts and information presented. Facts add more information to the passage and the readers would want to read more as they would want to learn more about the effect of noise pollution on birds. 

The writer has used difficult vocabulary in the passage for example, “chronically”, “hypervigilance”, “psychological”. Difficult or advanced vocabulary makes the passage seem more formal and professional to the reader. It makes them seem as if the writer has knowledge about the topic and this way the reader also learns new words along with the information about the topic stated. 

The author has also used triples in the passage for example, “noise pollution, abnormal levels of stress hormones and lower survival rates”. The uses of triples adds emphasis to the passage and creates a flow of writing. It adds a rhythm and makes the passage more fun and easier for the reader to read. As these triples are also facts, the reader also gets more information along with the flow of writing. 

The author has also used statistics in the passage like, “75 yards”, 240 nesting sites”. The use of numbers in the passage also makes the passage more believable and formal. The reader believes and gets more information by reading the passage and benefits from reading the passage. 

The author has also used a reference in the passage, “there is a Goldilocks distance”. By adding a popular reference, the writer makes the passage more interesting as the reader can relate to something in the passage and sometimes, the use of a reference can make the reader understand something better, especially if it is a piece of information. 

In conclusion, I think that the writer has used many techniques to add weight to the passage, especially to support the piece of information that is being  presented. The writer has mainly used techniques to make the passage more convincing as it is an informative passage. The use of facts, statistics, quotations adds weight to the information and the author has been successful in getting the message and information across to the reader.

About froebelianwriters

I am an English Language teacher teaching O'Levels Edexcel and CIE A Levels at Froebel's International School, Islamabad. I am also working as a Subject Specialist Literacy consultant for the same school. Writing and reading has always been a passion and I try my utmost to instill these habits and hobbies in my students as well. I can be reached/contacted at fabbas227@hotmail.com or 03365287335 Happy reading!

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