Daily Archives: May 29, 2020

Descriptive: A Train Ride By Javeria Husain

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As I hold my cup of steaming black coffee, the froth slowly dissolving into swirls of beige and black, I find my seat in the broad train aisle, looking desperately for a window seat.
I claim the window seat on my left, and sit down.The seat, seems ancient,a thin layer of dust rests on the worn out leather, with little tears of white seeping out of the gaps.
I run a swift hand to get rid of the dust, and place my belongings near me. Pushing aside the velvety curtains that shield the thin glass window, the jagged concrete road full of scurrying pedestrians comes into view.
A man, of the age of around thirty, lousily stumbles through the aisle and heavily dumps his weight into the creaky seat besides me.
He reeks of beer, his dark eyes drooping and slouched, his buttonholes done into the wrong buttonholes, and his hair made untidy, the oily strands sitting on the top of his head. Who let him onto the bus?
The train starts moving abruptly, and the immediate clashing of the steel wheels against the railway tracks echoes through the bus loudly.
I plug headphones in and scan the fellow passengers around me, allowing the music to flow through my ears.
An old couple with dull white hair, neatly combed, the wife with a set of shiny pearls that hung loosely around her neck, delicately sips a cup of warm tea while wearing a huge smile plastered onto her face as her spouse chuckles deeply while conversing with her.
Behind them sits an overly enthusiastic teacher flipping about cards to the uninterested children behind her, who seem extremely bored and do not pay attention back to her and arrogantly thump their thumbs into PSP’s and Nintendo DS’s.
The man seated next to me, now passed out sleeps with his mouth agape, wide open.The stench of beer floods my nostrils once again, disgusted, I sigh and look outside.
The sky is painted a variety of bright colors as the sun slowly envelopes itself back into the depths of the sky. Glancing at my watch, the green digits show as  ”7:02 p.m”. Perfect time to watch the sun, set.
Shades of dark blue, light pink. lilac, and indigo mix into each other and paint the sky as if it’s a painting by Van Gogh.
Slowly, stars uncover themselves, glistening and twinkling in the surreal, colorful sky. The clouds create a thick orange colored layer to hide the sun, turning them into a deep orange too.
One by one, almost in sync, the lights of the street of the city and tall pointy skyscrapers flicker on. The buildings, reflecting the sky seems to also have stars on them as their white lights turn on too, glistening similarly like stars.The train’s speed increases and my view changes.
Fields of lush green grass and little lilies along with the pink colored petal flowers dance with the lonely strands of upright grass, in the wind.They move melodically with the direction of the wind.
Little children, perhaps from the outskirts of the city joyfully play in the grass field, as their parents admire them with watery eyes.
The lights of the train ceiling flicker on too, changing the atmosphere from full of vivid, opaque and enticing colors to a dull light brown.
The sun, almost swallowed and gone out of sight allows the crescent moon to shine. The paper white moon hides the sun, and reflects it’s white light, coating the city.
The city, full of tiny yellow and white lights shining from a distance light’s up the city and give it it’s night life effect, displaying advertisements on large billboards, too.
The train comes to an abrupt halt. My view is now of a dark coffee colored brick wall of the station.
This was my train ride.

Descriptive: Describe a train ride. By NoorulAin Saif 10B

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The wheels clashed with the railway making a sound so loud sleep felt like a work unknown. The ‘on a budget’ train ride was even harsh to the worst of people. The seats in my compartment had a rough, ragged covering full of stains, dirt and quite some holes which only made me think about whatever happened her before .The window was curtained with dust which asked me to brush it off with my hand to look out.

However, the view outside wasn’t worth one of the numbered napkins I carried along. Outside was deserted, dry and depressing plain with no sign of life on it: no plants, no animals and no humans. The weather outside, with the blazing heat of the sun, didn’t feel impossible to imagine regarding the fact that inside, it wasn’t only hot and humid but also VERY suffocating.

Dsh Tsh! Dsh Tsh! My ears were on the verge of bleeding, and my head on the verge of exploding. I let out another sigh of pain and agony along with my fellow passengers. The train made sure all of us regretted our five dollars and our plan to travel on a train.

Now, came the food. Stale bread that lay on an undesirable beige plate was topped with almost brown cabbage and little chunks of unseasoned chicken. Although the unappetizing detail made me hesitate to do so, I picked up the ‘sandwich’ and took a bite. The ‘boneless’ chicken chunks had little bones in them and I almost threw up. To down it, I took a gulp of the warm, bottled cola.

Everyone looked miserable, including the surrounding décor. The wallpaper on the walls was ripping off and the small table had almost broken. The bunk beds to the side were shaky and untrustworthy, sheets dirty and crumbled and mattresses as hard as rocks.

The hostesses were unpleasant and ill-mannered. Their grumpy faces made any passenger with a question nervous enough to breakdown.

The train ride was definitely a train wreck. The interior was absolutely unwelcoming. Definitely would never recommend it to anyone.

Descriptive: Describe a train ride. By NoorulAin Saif 10B

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The wheels clashed with the railway making a sound so loud sleep felt like a work unknown. The ‘on a budget’ train ride was even harsh to the worst of people. The seats in my compartment had a rough, ragged covering full of stains, dirt and quite some holes which only made me think about whatever happened her before .The window was curtained with dust which asked me to brush it off with my hand to look out.

However, the view outside wasn’t worth one of the numbered napkins I carried along. Outside was deserted, dry and depressing plain with no sign of life on it: no plants, no animals and no humans. The weather outside, with the blazing heat of the sun, didn’t feel impossible to imagine regarding the fact that inside, it wasn’t only hot and humid but also VERY suffocating.

Dsh Tsh! Dsh Tsh! My ears were on the verge of bleeding, and my head on the verge of exploding. I let out another sigh of pain and agony along with my fellow passengers. The train made sure all of us regretted our five dollars and our plan to travel on a train.

Now, came the food. Stale bread that lay on an undesirable beige plate was topped with almost brown cabbage and little chunks of unseasoned chicken. Although the unappetizing detail made me hesitate to do so, I picked up the ‘sandwich’ and took a bite. The ‘boneless’ chicken chunks had little bones in them and I almost threw up. To down it, I took a gulp of the warm, bottled cola.

Everyone looked miserable, including the surrounding décor. The wallpaper on the walls was ripping off and the small table had almost broken. The bunk beds to the side were shaky and untrustworthy, sheets dirty and crumbled and mattresses as hard as rocks.

The hostesses were unpleasant and ill-mannered. Their grumpy faces made any passenger with a question nervous enough to breakdown.

The train ride was definitely a train wreck. The interior was absolutely unwelcoming. Definitely would never recommend it to anyone.

Narrative: Write a story, true or imaginary, entitled ‘The Prize’. By NoorulAin Saif 10 B

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I felt out of breath. My destination was anywhere out of this now turned cruel place, Kashmir, once called home. Leaving my father behind ached my soul, but knowing he was there to help other Muslims comforted me. There were Indian soldiers everywhere. So was blood. So was pain. So was agony.

It had been going on for fifty days now. Kashmir was under attack by the Indian government, claiming their power by torturing, raping and burning Kashmiri Muslims. I was told by them that there was no escape, but my father found us, Kashmiris, a way out. I was running towards the mountains where on the other side I’d find Pakistan’s border. Oh, how it sounded like heaven.

Five in the morning, I left the shelter and headed out. Once I’d reach the border my uncle would help me out. It was approximately 7:00am now. My feet sore, and my legs had almost given up. Thankfully, I was in a crowd of trees, my muddy clothes would conceal me if any beast was around. I sat by a tree, panting, heart beating fast and thoughts running through my mind.

Will I ever make it? What if those predators saw me? Will it be the end of it all?

My knees were bleeding by the numerous amounts of times I tripped on hard rocks, only trying to bear the pain by picturing myself being shot on my legs. I didn’t know how much longer I was to run to get my prize but I got up and started walking.

“Come on Noor, you can make it, for your father and for the helpless souls”, I told myself. Every now and then I’d hear a living thing either walk, or breath. But I told myself it was an animal and tried not to be steered back by the fear.

There was a pleasant breeze. A beautiful sight. Only to make me wish it made me happy. Instead it broke me. God’s creations are so majestic but so are they cruel and heartless.

Now came the river. I had to find a way through. The water was ferocious. I knew if I tried to find a way through it, I’d be crumbled and clenched by the rocks. I then ran to the end of the river where I saw big rocks which led my way over the river. I jumped onto the first one. My heart raced. One wrong step and I’d be eaten up by the river. My bare feet bled. The freezing cold water numbed them. The pain felt never ending.

I was over the river after about fifteen minutes. It must have been eight now. The Indian forces would be changing shifts just about now. I had ten minutes.

I ran like anything. Like everything I ever needed stood miles away. It was all I needed. My feet were on the verge of giving up.

But there it was. The border. My soul felt enlightened. I wanted to scream with pleasure. I had reached my destination, achieved my prize. Freedom was my prize.

Descriptive: The castle By Fasih Taqvi

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Trapped between inviting lush green hills of the Turkish countryside and intimidating jet black, snow-capped mountains of the Caucasus lay a castle. The castle, according to local scriptures, had been built in late 8th century C.E. For years it resided peacefully at the top of a hilltop, not making a sound. No one knew why it was there or who built it. But indeed, it was something quite unique.

The castle signified a time of great prosperity. As the red hues of the fluorescent sunshine beamed upon the rusted iron gates, it revealed the splendour and majesty of the castle. As it shone more brightly, it revealed the ceramic pavements, the marble statues, the most beautifully engineered churches. All a reminder of the castle’s opulence and luxuries.

If one were to look at it from a neighbouring hill station, the castle size itself could be convincing enough of that of a city. Covering 4000 hectares of verdant land. The view there was breath taking. Cyan blue lakes fainting the thousands of trees lined up against one another, tainting the land with various shades of blue, red and whatnot. Along with these wonders of nature, the land hosted thousands of species of rodents, fish and birds too. All living in harmony around the mystical boundaries of the castle.

The castle though so inviting, was quite intimidating too. Its hundreds of foot high walls and large cannons and pots of hot sticky oil was enough to scare the most daring of enemies away. In historic times, the fiercest of knights stood guarding the castle aided with the most skilled of archers. The castle indeed had been a formidable force for its time.

The structure was a representative of an empire that had ruled the land for years; assumingly built for strategic importance. Yet unfortunately, one disastrous event lead to another and the empire was ruined.

What was once its mesmerising dormitories, full of life, now were eerily silent, like those seen in horror movies. The castle’s world-renowned libraries, bursting with the most eloquent pieces of literature and articulate novels, lay in heaps of filth and dust. The bedrooms where the young princes, consorts and princesses abided now robbed of its former spontaneity. It too had become a part of the depressing exterior the castle had adopted.

The castle’s grand bazaar, the gold-plated throne of the Sultan, the main banquet hall, the balcony from where the princesses waved to their suitors and the architectural wonders that it exhibited for everyone to see was now just as unheard of as the castle. All gone. Abandoned, so much so that UNESCO had forgotten to put it on its list. Shunned by the population that once inhabited its walls.

A castle that was once a symbol of greatness, power and luxury had now become a dystopian reality. A shadow of its former historic glory.

 

By Syed Fasih-ul-Hassan Taqvi

10-B

 

 

Descriptive: Describe a celebration at a party by Subhan Bin Yousaf 11-E

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A huge room, which turns to be the epicenter of the party. Coloured lights are dragged and decorated across the golden rod, bearing the weight of the red curtains, as red as the crimson fluid that flowed inside the bodies of the the party’s guests. You can’t look up unless you hope to be blinded by flashing lights, such that if a guest stood under these lights, He would appear brighter than even his own complexion allowed, Brightness reflected off his skin like a ray reflected off a diamond. Not a source of light seen to be switched off, such that in the street stuck in the grasp of darkness, the house in that street itself was a source of light for the passerbys, the house, a sole fighter of the street’s darkness. This would result in an electricity bill, that would only be payable once money grew on trees.

There are balloons, red, yellow, pink, all taped on to the white doors that welcomed the guests, or taped on to the walls with each balloon distanced from the other at a metre’s length. A butler, dressed in a tuxedo, a white bow making amends with his neck. He moves around, holding a silver tray, carrying cocktails, namely Pina Colada and Mint-Margarita. For someone who might desire, may find himself encountering the butler, only to sip down a mixture of pineapples and iced juice or a mixture of sliced to bits mint, squeezed lemon and iced barley juice.

Don’t expect anyone at this party to be dressed in a formal manner. Everyone arrives at the party in a casual dressing, namely T-shirts or buttoned ones, accompanied by Jeans or pajamas with sneakers being the final touch to the dressing. Find different groups hang out amongst themselves in the different corners of the room. If you suit with none of these groups, introduction to others is suggested or find someone who might be down for a game of chess, or just join a queue, watching people bend under the rod’s placement as they play a game of limbo. Dancing in the centre of the room is a common sight, as some guests enjoy the pop music playing on the speakers above their heads and these guests involve themselves in a duet on the ‘dancing’ centre of the room.

For someone who wishes to help himself to an appetite, can move over up to the table, bearing all the taste of juicy meat, different cuisine food, different snacks or cold drinks. You see people munching mostly on pizza and club sandwiches with cold drinks to assist the food’s journey down the oesophagus into the stomach. After a while, when everyone wills for a piece of dessert, then either a piece of cake is seen handed to the guests or scoops of different flavoured icecream, mainly chocolate or vanilla, are fed to the guests.

A party can also serve as a place to carry out juvenile behavior and activities, like consuming drugs, smoking, or mostly getting into fights. In every lone room or corner of the house, you might find people snorting cocaine up their noses and down their lungs, or smoking cigarettes, all as a means to enjoy brief period of intoxication and a time away from the business of reality. You might sight people get down to shoving each other and then gradually forced to shove fists into the other’s cheek aggressively and before you know, the whole crowd gathers around either to watch the theatrical performance or to pull the ‘poles of the magnets’ apart. Therefore a party can be a place where everyone hopes to revive the sense of joy within themselves, but its upto the actions of these guests, over which the guest leaves with a frown assisted with eyebrows pulled down or with a glee shining on their face.

AO3: ‘Visit to Naples’ by Bill Bryson and ‘Ram sees the Taj Mahal’ by Vikas Swarup by Subhan Bin Yousaf 11-E

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Question: How have the writers of passage one and passage two addressed their opinions about visiting a new place/country?

 

The first passage is an extract titled ‘Visit to Naples’, written by Bill Bryson. The second passage, an extract titled ‘Ram sees the Taj Mahal’, written by Vikas Swarup. The first extract, extracted from the travel log diary ‘Neither here nor there’ and the second extract, taken from the book ‘Slumdog millionaire’. The intended purpose of the writers of both passages is to convey the journeys and the landscape and sights the subjects of both passages saw. Devices such as the likes of Imagery, Figurative language and Descriptiveness aid the two writers with their purpose.

Passage One is Narrative with a speck of descriptiveness accompanying this narrativeness. “I emerged from the hotel, a cold slicing rain falling”, In this example, the writer narrates his action in the first half of the sentence, then he begins to describe what he sees in the second half of the sentence. Passage two is similar to passage one, but the passage is descriptive with a speck of narrativeness accompanying this descriptiveness. “I pass through the metal detector, cross the red-sand stone courtyard with its arched gateaway…..Taj Mahal rises in all its beauty and splendor, shimmering in afternoon haze.”, Notice that in this sentence, One seventh of the sentence is narrative with the rest being descriptive about the Taj Mahal’s landscape. The intended purposes of writers of both passages is to emit conveyance of ideas using structure, but the only thing that differs in the works of both writers is the different ratio of descriptiveness and narrativeness in their passages, however, this difference still produces the same amount of interest for the reader to read this passage.

The purpose of the writer of passage one is to describe his journey and sights he sees. “I would blunder onto some shady square lined with small but decent hotels.” In this example, the writer explains that he would walk into shady spots which were encountered by small,decent hotels on both sides. Notice the writer describes to where he walks yet describe the thing he sees, in this case, small hotels. The purpose of the writer of passage two is congruent to the purpose of the writer of passage one, both passages describe the journeys of the protagonists of both passages as well as the sights they see. “Thirty minutes of brisk walking along the embankment brings me to an enormous red-sandstone entrance gate.” Notice how he describes his journey around Taj and describes the sandstone gate he sees. The purpose of both writers was to write in a way that when the reader reads the passage line by line, the reader could visualize themselves in the body of the protagonist, see through their eyes, walk their steps. Hence their purpose is achieved and the purpose to build interest for the passage in the reader’s mind, is also achieved.

One other common device used by the writers of both passages is the use of Statistics in the passages, “In the centre of Naples some 70000 families live”. In this example, the writer of passage one uses one of the statistics he knows about the city of Naples and writes it in his passage to convey this piece of knowledge to the readers, reading his passage. The writer of passage two, too has used a number of statistics about the Taj Mahal. “Taj Mahal, Eighth wonder of the World”, one of the many stats used in the passage. The writer of passage two also conveys this piece of info to the readers, reading his novel around the World, unaware about Taj Mahal’s history and importance. By using statistics in their passages, the writers teach some facts to the readers about the place the plot of the story is based in. By doing this, the readers become aware of what the protagonist might be facing or seeing, or taking a tour of, they become aware of what the places in the passages are actually like. These stats also enhances the general knowledge of the reader, either way, these stats maintain the will of the reader to carry on reading.

One other common device used by the writer of both passages is the use of Metaphors in the passages. “Plane of dead sea”- an example of a metaphor used in passage one. The use of this metaphor in passage one is to convey the concept of shores there. The shores are part of the dead sea and stretch over an unknown wide area of the Earth’s land. “Glitters in the sunlight” is an example of a metaphor used in passage two. To describe the reflection of sunlight from the dome of Taj, the writer uses the word “glitter” to describe this reflection. By using the metaphor in these passages, the writer explains a concept to the reader, by comparing it to unlike things to add in a bit of emphasis. The example “Plane of dead sea”, the word “Plane” replaces the concept of a huge, wide area. The example “glitters in sunlight”, the word “glitters” replaces the concept of reflection of sunlight. These metaphors help make the conveyance of concepts to be a bit of figurative. These metaphors capture the interest of reader and encourage them to read on.

One other figurative element used in the passage is the use of Personification. “Tumbling fog” is an example of personification used in the passage one. “Tumbling” is the word used to describe fog that arrives slowly and the writer uses this term in the passage to explain the patient arrival of fog. “Clouds drifting” is an example of personification used in passage two. The purpose behind using Personification is to compare unlike things to human like interaction. Personification adds in emphasis to the concepts conveyed in both passages. It helps the readers to understand the concepts conveyed in a better perspective which enhances not only interest but also their literary figurative use in writing.

One more figurative device used in the passage is the use of alliteration. “Steep and slippery steps”-an example of passage one, notice the use of words that begin with the same alphabets, used to describe a concept or visualize it. “Purity of perfection”, another example of alliteration used in passage two. This example is used to describe the concept of the timeline the protagonist had mapped out in his mind. Like said above, alliteration helps these writers to describe and visualize concepts effectively. These help add a bit of emphasis to the concepts. Alliterations can play the role of adjectives describing that concept. Hence, when the concepts are effectively explained with the assist of alliteration, the reader develops interest for the passage and maintains the will to carry on reading.

One other figurative device used in the passages is the use of Similes. “Hung like banners between balconies that never saw sunlight”-an example of a simile in passage one. The writer of passage one makes a comparison of the washed clothes left out hung to dry, to banners hung on the balconies of castles. “Turquoise sky like an ivory moon”- an example of a simile used in passage two. The writer compares the sky’s colour that day as if it looks like turquoise or like the colour of ivory. By using similes in the passages, both the writers emit a direct comparison of the concepts of the passages to unlike things, to add in not only emphasis but to place an effect of imagery in the reader’s mind. The reader becomes aware of the landscape of the place as he can visualize it while reading the passage. Using similes captures the reader’s interest as he has been explained the concept in more detail.

The audience of both the passages have something in common: similar interests with no differences. “The Vicaria, where I was now, is said to have the highest population density in Europe”, The writer of passage one writes this piece of fact  in the passage to be used by readers that might find this fact useful, such as tourists. “A group of prosperous Western tourists armed with camcorders and binoculars, listening to an elderly guide at the base of the dome”-the writer of passage two tells the readers of what to expect if they ever go to Taj Mahal. This fact can be useful for those such as the tourists. The audience of both passages can be anyone of any age, but the passages have actually been written to capture the attention of special interest groups, such as the tourists.

In conclusion, the writers of both passages have used common devices such as the use of  Statistics, figurative language, descriptiveness to achieve their goal: To provide the reader with an opportunity to visualize themselves in the shoes of the passages’ protagonists. Using these devices captured a reader’s interest, encourage him to finish reading the extracts. Hence both writers have used the similar devices to achieve a similar objective, successfully.

 

Discursive: Teenagers spend too much time on their mobile phones and computers, to what extent do you agree with this view? By Subhan Bin Yousaf 11-E

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As decades pass, the impact of technology continues to increase and affect the minds of the youth. For example, teenagers in early twentieth century were often seen helping their fathers in the farm or helping their mothers maintain the welfare of their house. Moving on to a century later, times have changed, teenagers who are expected to prove themselves as finally being mature and responsible, actually deliver the opposite of what the parents intended. The question is: what actually is driving them to behave in such way? Why have parents lost hope with their own children? Why are the 20th century generations’ civilians concerned about the future of the twenty-first century generations’ civilians? Lets break down this issue and find out reasons why.

 

The problem is that technology of the twenty-first century has enslaved the modern youth in its grasp. People in favour of handing mobiles in the hands of teenagers believe that by owning a mobile or a laptop, A student can use these devices to assist them in their studies. Professor Nawaf Sheikh of Saudi Arabia’s International University, has stated that owning a mobile actually can help a student carry out his study activity. He says that teachers themselves encourage students to own a mobile over which a teacher can provide notes to her/his students with a touch of the screen. Those opposed to handing teenagers mobile phones believe that owning a mobile phone can lead a student’s outstanding performance in studies to downfall. Professor Jojo Jehangir of the ministry of youth affairs, believes that there is mounting evidence that mobiles can destruct good grades. Over his 20 years in this profession, he has researched that over sixty-seven percent of students with outstanding results, fall down the mountain of success, with the mobile phone being responsible for their downfall. He says that the percentage continues to get piqued year after year.

Teenagers have grown lethargic ever since they were handed the mobile phones. Proponents of the use of mobiles for teenagers say that mobiles actually help a teenager with his activity and fitness. Professor Samwell Tarly of Oldtown’s Citadel institute has stated that teenagers download applications in their mobile, which assist them in finding an activity to carry out or the fitness enthusiastic teenagers download applications which track the feats the teenager ran throughout a day’s period. At the same time, Opponents of handing mobile phones in the hands of teenagers maintain that teenagers have lost their will to move a muscle, they remain restricted to their beds and if they are called upon, you summon them after your third call or they summon you when you have to go to them yourself. Doctor John Watson of London’s Institute of fitness believe that enslaving oneself to grasp of technology means to experience a lack of interest for exercise, activity, work or sport. You become used to laying on your bed which is why teenagers behave this way.

 

Teenagers see a mobile phone as a source to socialize with people. Those who support handing mobiles to teenagers suggest that when teenagers interact on social media through their mobile devices, not only do they socialize, but they remain calm and in joy as they talk to their friends. Monica Geller, a senior journalist has wrote in his book that using a mobile to interact on social media helps reduce the stress in a teenager’s life, helps build in confidence in a teenager as he interacts with all kinds of people. Furthermore, Critics of handing mobile phones in the hands of teenagers believe that using social media can also impact a teenager negatively. A teenager can find himself reading hate speech, motivating him to hate a particular group, he may find himself exploring the dark side of the web. Doctor Skyler White of Albuquerque’s University of Human Relations has found out that using social media has led to a noticeable change in a teenager’s behavior, He behaves aggressively, finds out about ways to inflict suffering to the people he/she hates.

To sum up, I am in favour of handing mobiles phones to teenagers because using mobiles can help a teenager save his notes and study additionally from the Internet. Mobile devices also have applications which help to find activities for a teenager or help him with his fitness. Using social media on mobile also helps a teenager remain happy, away from the stress of the world, Increases confidence of a teenager and helps him gain knowledge of modern studies. If you don’t hand mobiles to teenagers, they will never learn to mature or ever learn to cope with the business of the world or its different people. Its upto you to decide if mobiles are beneficial for character development or a source for being distracted from the world.

AO2: How is the message communicated to the reader in the passage when the Ram sees the Taj Mahal for the first time? By Zara Irfan 11 E.

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This passage is an extract from the novel ‘Slumdog Millionaire’, written by the author ‘Vikas Swarup’. The purpose of the author writing it is to entertain the reader, and to be expressive correspondingly while the language used is casual to conversational. Apart from this, it is certain that the audience and its readers are travelers, people interested in exploring and adults/young adults. The tone the author uses is friendly, with flecks of sarcasm. The style being narrative and the theme being ‘travel’, the author has enveloped many literary techniques in his work.

Starting off with the most evident technique used- imagery- the writer has condoned in giving his readers a lot of examples, for instance he says, “plastic debris float on its eddying currents.” In another place this has been mentioned, “It is a gleaming white structure which rises up.” This gives the reader a description to envision the scene unfolding, which in result promotes interest.

Another trait visible in the passage is its uplifting humor. “Craned to catch a glimpse of a dead body floating on its surface.” This very statement provides evidence to my appeal. Henceforth, it is sufficient to say that the writer has worked in providing an interesting narrative as humor sustains the reader’s attention.

Thirdly, personification (a figure of speech) has been used in this extract as the writer uses the words “swelling” for dome and “dancing” for the Taj. This enables the reader to have proficient understanding of every detail as this technique gives human-like characteristics to non-living things. Other than this, it also had description and an oomph to the writer’s work.

Side by side, the writer uses words like ‘spear-like’, ‘passer-by’ and ‘baton-wielding’ which can be identified as compound words and ‘Arrey’ (a vernacular word). This variety of vocabulary adds spice to the passage and a little but of funk. It also shows the comprehensiveness of language of the writer.

Entrancing the reader with exaggeration, the writer says the following statements, “After and eternity, I turn to the first passer-by” and “It glitters in the sunlight.” Exaggeration generally emphasizes a point and reinforces the author’s words, making the entire writing seem much more detailed and believable.

Other than this, the author has enrolled irony in his story. For example, he says, “the loss of my fifty thousand rupees” and at another place says, “baton-wielding policemen try to restore order”. In the first example, the writer loses his most important source; money, while in the second example, the key word is ‘try’, when a policeman’s basic duty is to maintain peace. This makes the story more appealing and the writer’s point more distinctive.

Pun is another technique used by the writer when he says, “the reflecting pool with a glassy image,” in the sixth paragraph. This adds humor and positions the reader to enjoy the author’s writings and grabs substantial attention as well.

Another one of the many figures of speech used is alliteration. ‘Purity of its perfection’ is what the writer says in line 20. Alliteration is catchy, joy able to read and focuses on a healthy flow of words. It also maintains reader’s interest.

Corresponding to the last technique, onomatopoeia can be spotted. For example, the writer says, “babble of voice rises.” This creates a wider image of what is happening and makes the reader live in the moment.

Lastly, statistics have been provided by the author in various parts of the extract, for instance, the writer says, “Indians Rs 20 Foreigners $20.” This backs up the reader’s words and gives them evidence, making everything seem more believable too.

Wrapping everything up, it would be an understatement to say that the writer has endorsed a lot of figures of speech in his work for example ‘alliteration’, ‘personification’ and ‘onomatopoeia’. Along with this, techniques such as exaggeration and humor have also been used, making the narrative seem increasingly eye-catching.

AO2: How does the writer convey his thoughts and feelings about his visit to Naples in Italy in this passage? By Zara Irfan 11 E.

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Entitled as ‘Neither Here Nor There’, this extract has been endorsed by the writer Bill Bryson, the purpose behind it being to entertain the reader while being expressive side by side as well. The language used is semi-formal, going in a smooth flow, making the writer’s words seem conversational and easy to read. The audience includes travelers and mainly young-adults and adults since the extract is a travel log and the tone holds a humorous and jolly pace. The attitude, however, is skeptical (somewhat under tension) regarding the fact that the author is in a new place, facing foreign problems. The style can be described using two different elements; description and narration. Furthermore, the theme can be recognized as ‘travel’ or even ‘new experiences’.

Coming to the actual body of the narrative, this extract holds various techniques to woo the reader into reading it. The first and foremost detectable feature can be the mass of the description the author has used and how he has coupled words with adjectives, creating the best example of imagery. For example, the author has used the lines ‘obscured by a wispy haze’ and ‘I would blunder onto some shady square lined with small but decent hotels’. This adds color to the writings and allows the reader to be attracted to the passage.

Carrying forth with the last given example (‘square lined with small but decent hotels’), use of alliteration can be spotted as the writer is playing about with the letter ‘s’. Relating to this, associations/connotations have also been made by the writer. For instance, the author in the third paragraph says, “mean, cavernous, semi-paved alleyways.” These words- specifically the word ‘mean’- hold more meaning to them. Hence, it is safe to say that both persuasive techniques make the readers hold on to the passage. Alliteration adds emphasis and associations bring about readers response in various ways.

Thirdly, different forms of figures of speech have been used. Personification can be highlighted when the writer says, “tumbling fog”. Another place where we can find an example is in the same line, the continuation being, “creatures from beyond the grave stumble.” This makes the reader visualize the scene in a more comprehensive manner and makes the writer overall more attractive. Euphemism is another figure of speech used. The writer uses the word ‘overplump’ instead of fat when describing the women he sees, which makes the situation more pleasant and polite to read.

Besides all of this, the writer’s work is full of sarcasm and humor. The extract has been wrapped up with a comical touch as the writer says at the end, “all they would get was some dirty underpants.” Another example can be seen in the third paragraph, “streets were full of overplump women and unattended children, often naked from the waist down.” Humor generally is a technique to enhance one’s writings and to make it seem more engaging, and as in this case here, the author has been successful.

Exaggerations, overstatements and hyperboles have been repeatedly used throughout the passage. This is evident in these exact words of the author, “I felt as if I had wandered onto another continent.” The usage of these makes the writer’s words clearer and more understandable by the reader. It also adds complexity and a flavorful touch to spice everything up, upholding drama at its best.

Providing us with facts and statistics, the author produces substantial evidences to back up his own words. For example, “has the highest population density in Europe”, “70,000 families even live now in cramped bassi’s” and “the pettier crimes like car theft (29,000 in one year).”

Use of several vernacular words is also highly prominent. ‘Scippatori’ and ‘bassi’ are some words which prove this point. These words are informative and give an overview of different cultures, making the reader indulge in the authors words even more. It creates a base of interest and is highly profound in attracting attraction.

In conclusion, the writer has been highly effective and efficient in proving and describing his experiences, using enhanced techniques such as figures of speech, persuasive tricks and statistical information for back up. Being highly descriptive, majority of the reader’s would find Bill Bryson’s work exclusively entertaining and humorous at the same time.